# XXV European Cosmic Ray Symposium

Europe/Rome
Torino

#### Torino

Physics Department, Via Pietro Giuria 1. Torino Esposizioni, Corso Massimo D'Azeglio 15
Description
###### Welcome to the 25th edition of the European Cosmic Ray Symposium.

ECRS2016 is the 25th in a series of European Cosmic Ray Symposia. The main goal of the Symposia is that of spreading throughout the European Physics community the information concerning the status of the research in cosmic rays and related fields, recent results, newly emerging ideas and forthcoming experiments.

The conference will take place in Torino, between September 5 and 9 2016, and is sponsored by INFN and the Physics Department of Torino University.

Participants
• Agnieszka Gil
• Aleksei Bogdanov
• Alessandro Bruno
• Alexander Borisov
• Alexander Karelin
• Alexander Mishev
• Alexander Panov
• Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu
• Alexei Struminsky
• Alexey Leonov
• Ali Alavi
• Ana Caramete
• Anastasia Petukhova
• Anastasia Tezari
• Anatoly Erlykin
• Anatoly Petrukhin
• Andrea Chiavassa
• Andrew Taylor
• Anna Wawrzynczak
• Anton Artamonov
• Antonella Castellina
• Arnold Wolfendale
• Artem Abunin
• Artur Tkachenko
• Beatrice Panico
• Carlo Francesco Vigorito
• Catia Grimani
• Damiano Caprioli
• Daniele Proverbio
• David Benyamin
• Davide Grandi
• Dimitra Lingri
• Dmitry Gromushkin
• Dmitry Karmanov
• Donghwa Kang
• Dorota Sobczynska
• Du Toit Strauss
• Eleanna Asvestari
• Elena Orlando
• Elsa Forno
• Erwin FLUECKIGER
• Etienne Parizot
• Eugenio Masuelli
• Fabio Gargano
• Federico Di Pierro
• Florian Gaté
• Francesca Bisconti
• Frank Schröder
• Gabriela Pavalas
• GABRIELLA ARDIZZOIA
• Galina Bazilevskaya
• Gian Carlo Trinchero
• Giuseppe La Vacca
• Grigory Protopopov
• Gromushkin Dmitry
• Gus Sinnis
• Harm Schoorlemmer
• Helena Krüger
• Igor Petrov
• Igor Yashin
• Ilya Usoskin
• Innocent Opara
• Irina Shakiryanova
• Ivan Astapov
• Ivan Gnesi
• Ivan Petukhov
• Ivan Shulzhenko
• Jannik Hofestaedt
• Jaša Čalogović
• Jie FENG
• Joerg Hoerandel
• Johannes Knapp
• Juan A. Garzon
• Karel Kudela
• Karoly Kecskemety
• Khusnudin Nuritdinov
• Krzysztof Iskra
• Lev Timofeev
• Luigi Tibaldo
• Manuela Vecchi
• Marco Garbini
• Marek Siluszyk
• Maria Abunina
• Maria Lavrova
• Mario Edoardo Bertaina
• Markus Roth
• Marusya Buchvarova
• Mateja Dumbović
• MATTIA DI MAURO
• Maura Graziani
• Michael Alania
• Michele Doro
• Mikhail Panasyuk
• Mirko Boezio
• Moon Moon Devi
• Natalia Agafonova
• Natalia Barbashina
• Natalia Bugrova
• Nicolao Fornengo
• Nicolò Masi
• Olga Kryakunova
• Olivier Deligny
• Oscar Saavedra San Martin
• Pavel Bezyazeekov
• Peter Claver Nwagwu
• Peter Velinov
• Pier Giorgio Rancoita
• Pier Simone Marrocchesi
• Piero Galeotti
• Piero Spillantini
• Piero VALLANIA
• Raffaella Bonino
• Raúl Gómez-Herrero
• Renat Sibatov
• Renata Modzelewska
• Riccardo Munini
• Roberto J. Demarco
• Roberto Mussa
• Rolf Buetikofer
• Roman Raikin
• Rosa Coniglione
• Rostislav Kokoulin
• Sami Caroff
• Sebastien Celestin
• Semen Khokhlov
• Sergei Sinegovsky
• Sergey Aleksandrin
• Sergey Koldashov
• Sergey Koldobskiy
• Sergey Ostapchenko
• Silvia Manconi
• Silvia Teresa Vernetto
• Simone Ammazzalorso
• Simone Appella
• Stanislav Knurenko
• Stefano Della Torre
• Stepan Poluianov
• Sunday Boluwaji Fajana
• Svetlana Rogovaia
• TALAI Mohamed Cherif
• Tanya Serebryakova
• Temir Zharaspayev
• Tiina Suomijarvi
• Timo Laitinen
• TIMOTHY AKHANEMHE
• Timur Dzhatdoev
• Tomasz Fuchs
• Vagelli Valerio
• VALENTINA SCOTTI
• Valeria Di Felice
• Valerio Formato
• Valery Logachev
• Vasily Anashin
• Victor Yanke
• Vitor de Souza
• Wolfgang Menn
• Yang Li
• Yulia Kazarina
• Yuri Stozhkov
• Zayarnaya Irina
Support
• Sunday, 4 September
• 16:00 18:00
Registration Physics Department

### Physics Department

#### Torino

• Monday, 5 September
• 09:00 10:30
Registration Torino Esposizioni (Torino Esposizioni)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino Esposizioni

• 10:30 11:00
Opening Session Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

• 11:00 13:00
Plenary: Plenary 1 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. Anatoly Erlykin (P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 11:00
Recent news from gamma rays observations 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Andrii Neronov
• 11:30
Space-based gamma-ray astronomy: new results, new frontiers, new horizons 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Luigi Tibaldo
• 12:00
Review of ground based gamma rays measurements 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Gus Sinnis
• 12:30
Observing the TeV gamma-ray sky with the High-Altitude Water Cerenkov observatory 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Harm Schoorlemmer
• 13:00 14:30
Lunch Break
• 14:30 16:00
Plenary: Plenary 2 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Dr Markus Roth (KIT)
• 14:30
Extragalatic Cosmic Rays Above the Iron Knee 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Andrew Taylor
• 15:00
Review on Extra-Galactic Cosmic Ray Detection 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Mariangela Settimo
• 15:30
Cosmic Rays Anisotropies: a Review 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Olivier Deligny
• 16:00 16:30
Coffee Break
• 16:30 17:45
Parallel: Parallel 1A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. Erwin FLUECKIGER (Physikalisches Institut / University of Bern)
• 16:45
Galactic Cosmic Ray Proton Spectra during Solar Cycle 23 and 24 - Measurement Capabilities of the Electron Proton Helium Telescope on Board SOHO 15m
Measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectra near Earth over timescales of a solar cycle are crucial in order to understand the solar modulation of these particles. While the more recent, sophisticated instruments like AMS and PAMELA provided high precision data of these spectra, they can only provide long-term measurements in the near future. On the other side, the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) onboard SOHO provides data for 20 years but is limited to proton energies below 50 MeV. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed a method to extend the energy range of the SOHO/EPHIN to energies between ~250 MeV and 1.6 GeV for protons using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations of the instrument. The derived spectra are validated against results from AMS, BESS and PAMELA. As a result, we present annual galactic cosmic ray proton spectra from 1995 to 2015. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.
Speaker: Mr Patrick Kühl (University of Kiel)
• 17:00
New measurement on the time dependence of the cosmic-ray electrons and positrons by the PAMELA experiment between July 2006 and December 2015. 15m
The satellite-borne PAMELA experiment has been continuously collecting data since 15th June 2006, when it was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome to detect the charged component of cosmic rays over a wide energy range and with an unprecedented statistics. The apparatus design is particularly suited for particle and antiparticle identification. Moreover, the PAMELA long flight duration allows to study the time variation of low energy (<30 GeV) cosmic rays, measuring the differential energy intensity of oppositely charged particles down to ~70 MeV. We present preliminary results on the time-dependent electron and positron intensity measured at Earth between July 2006 and the end of 2015 in the energy range between 500 MeV and 5 GeV. This time period spans between the A<0 solar minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) till the middle of solar maximum of A>0 solar cycle 24. The positron to electron ratio allows a detailed study of charge-sign dependent solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear indication of how drift effects unfold with time during different phases of the solar activity and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field.
Speaker: Riccardo Munini (TS)
• 17:15
Acceleration of Particles by Shock Waves in the Solar Atmosphere 15m
Acceleration of solar energetic particles by coronal mass ejection shocks is considered. We have studied the influence of the region behind the shock front on the acceleration process. The external boundary of the coronal mass ejection and the shock front are specified as coordinated segments of spherical surfaces with the different radii. In the calculation we consider nonstationarity of the process, spherical symmetry, and adiabatic losses of particle energy in the extending environment. The influence of the accelerated particles on dynamics of the system and the turbulence level of the magnetic field are not involved in the study. The performed numerical calculations show that the acceleration rate and accordingly the maximum energy in the spectrum are determined by the ratio between coefficients of particle diffusion in regions behind and ahead of the shock front. It was found that the initial coronal mass ejection radius defines the intensity of accelerated particles.
Speaker: Mrs Anastasia Petukhova (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of SB RAS)
• 17:30
Forbush Decreases during the deep minimum and mini-maximum of solar cycle 24 15m
After a prolonged and deep solar minimum at the end of Solar Cycle 23, the current Cycle 24 is one of the lowest cycles. These two periods of deep minimum and mini-maximum are connected by a period of increasing solar activity. The Forbush decreases in cosmic ray intensity from January 2008 to December 2014 are studied. We perform a statistical analysis of 617 events using the IZMIRAN database of Forbush effects obtained by processing the data of the worldwide neutron monitor network using the global survey method. A further study of the events that happened on the Sun and the way that these affected the interplanetary space, and finally provoked the decreases of the galactic cosmic rays near Earth is performed. A statistical analysis of the amplitude of the cosmic ray decreases with solar and geomagnetic parameters is carried out. The results will be useful for space weather studies and especially for Forbush decreases forecasting.
Speaker: Mrs Dimitra Lingri (University of Athens)
• 16:30 18:15
Parallel: Parallel 1B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. Anatoly Petrukhin (NRNU MEPhI)
• 16:30
Search for Cosmic Ray Anisotropy with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m
The search for cosmic positron anisotropy has been performed using particles collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station. The positron to electron ratio is consistent with isotropy at all energies and angular scales. The analysis of the positron to proton ratio yields consistent results.
Speaker: Giuseppe La Vacca (MIB)
• 16:45
The methods of uncertainty estimation for the large-scale anisotropy measurement in the PAMELA experiment 15m
The study of a large-scale anisotropy was done for the hadronic component of cosmic rays in the energy range 1 – 20 TeV/n using the data of the PAMELA experiment. However the statistics available was low to carry out its direct measurement. But the amplitude and phase of anisotropy can be obtained under an assumption that it exists and has a dipole form. The uncertainties of these values can be obtained by two different ways. The approaches of these uncertainty estimations are discussed in this work.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Karelin (NRNU MEPhI)
• 17:00
Anisotropies in GeV-TeV cosmic ray electron and positron fluxes 15m
High energy cosmic ray electrons and positrons probe the local properties of our Galaxy. In fact, electromagnetic energy losses limit the typical propagation scale of GeV-TeV electrons and positrons to a few kpc. In the diffusion model, nearby and dominant sources may produce an observable dipole anisotropy in the cosmic ray fluxes. We present a detailed study on the role of anisotropies from nearby sources in the interpretation of the observed GeV-TeV cosmic ray electron and positrons fluxes. We compute predictions for the anisotropies from known astrophysical sources as supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae of the ATNF catalog. Our results are compared with current anisotropy upper limits from the Fermi-LAT, AMS-02 and PAMELA experiments.
Speaker: Ms Silvia Manconi (Università degli Studi di Torino)
• 17:15
Secondary cosmic ray nuclei in the light of the Single Source Model 15m
Evidence for a local Single Source of cosmic rays is amassing by way of the recent precise measurements of various cosmic ray energy spectra from the AMS-02 experiment. To observations of individual cosmic ray nuclei, electrons, positrons and antiprotons must now be added the determination of the boron-to-carbon ratio and the energy spectrum of lithium to 2000 GV with high precision. Our analysis leads us to claim that, with certain assumptions about propagation in the Galaxy, the results confirm our arguments regarding the presence of a local single source, perhaps, the supernova remnant (SNR). An attempt is made to determine some of the properties of this SNR and its progenitor star.
Speaker: Prof. Anatoly Erlykin (P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow)
• 17:30
Precision Measurement of Boron-to-Carbon ratio in Cosmic Rays from 2 GV to 2 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station. 15m
AMS-02 is a wide acceptance high-energy physics experiment installed on the International Space Station in May 2011 and it has been operating continuously since then. AMS-02 is able to separate cosmic rays light nuclei ($1\leq Z \leq 8$) with contaminations less than $10^{-3}$ . The ratio between the cosmic rays Boron and Carbon fluxes is known to be very sensitive to the properties of the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy, being Boron a secondary product of spallation on the interstellar medium of heavier primary elements such as Carbon and Oxygen. A precise measurement reaching the TeV region can significantly help understanding cosmic rays propagation in the Galaxy and the amount of matter traversed before reaching Earth. The status of the measurement of the boron-to-carbon ratio based on 10 millions Boron and Carbon events is presented.
Speaker: Dr Valerio Formato (INFN PG)
• 17:45
Precision Measurement of the Carbon to Helium Flux Ratio in Cosmic Rays from 2 GV to 2 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m
A precision measurement of the flux ratio of Carbon to Helium in primary cosmic rays with rigidities from 2 GV to 2 TV is presented. Precision measurement of the Carbon flux, based on 8 million events, together with the variation of the flux spectral index with rigidity is also presented.
Speaker: Mr Yang LI (University of Geneva)
• 18:00
Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Lithium and Beryllium Isotopes with the PAMELA-Experiment 15m
On the 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome and it has been collecting data since that time. The apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a magnetic spectrometer ( permanent magnet) with an silicon-microstrip tracking system, an imaging calorimeter built from layers of silicon -microstrip detectors interleaved with plates of tungsten, an anti-coincidence system, a shower tail scintillator-counter and a neutron detector. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission are the measurement of the antiprotons and positrons spectra in cosmic rays, the hunt for antinuclei as well as the determination of light nuclei fluxes from hydrogen to oxygen in a wide energy range and with high statistics. The instrument in its detector-combination is also capable to identify isotopes. In this paper the identification capability using the rigidity information from the magnetic spectrometer together with the time-of flight measurement or with the multiple dE/dx measurement in the calorimeter will be shown. New results of the isotopic ratios of lithium and beryllium with increased statistics will be presented.
Speaker: Dr Wolfgang Menn (University of Siegen)
• Tuesday, 6 September
• 09:00 10:30
Plenary: Plenary 3 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. arnold wolfendale (Durham University)
• 09:00
The Solar Orbiter Mission: an Energetic Particle Perspective 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Raul Gomez Herrero
• 09:30
Radio Detection of Extensive Air Showers 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Frank Schroeder
• 10:00
LOFAR Highlights 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Joerg Hoerandel
• 10:30 11:00
Coffee Break
• 11:00 12:15
Parallel: Parallel 2A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. Ilya Usoskin (University of Oulu)
• 11:00
Spectral and angular characteristics of SEPs during the Halloween GLE events 15m
The solar cycle 23 provided several strong ground level enhancements. The period of end October - beginning of November 2003 was characterized by a strong cosmic ray variability and a sequence of three GLEs, which have been observed by worldwide neutron monitor network. In order to estimate possible atmospheric and space weather effects it is important to derive the solar energetic particle (SEP) spectra. This can be achieved using neutron monitor (NM) data. Here we perform precise analysis of SEP spectral and angular characteristics on the basis of NM records by modeling their propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere using a newly computed NM yield function at several altitudes above the sea level. Subsequently on the basis of the method representing a sequence of consecutive steps such as a detailed computation of the SEP asymptotic cones of acceptance, NM rigidity cut-offs and application and convenient optimization procedure, we derive the rigidity spectra and anisotropy characteristics of the Halloween GLEs. We derive the SEP spectra and pitch angle distributions in their dynamical development throughout the events
Speaker: Dr Alexander Mishev (Oulu University)
• 11:30
How hard are strong Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events? 15m
We present the result of an analysis of the hardness of most (59 out of 67) Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events recorded by the worldwide neutron monitor network. We calculated the event-integrated omnidirectional fluence of protons above 30MeV (F30) and above 200MeV (F200) using a reconstruction by Tylka and Dietrich, and considered their ratio F200/F30 as the measure of the spectrum hardness. We used the Band-function approximation of the spectrum shape and checked its validity with direct data of PAMELA space-borne instrument for GLE 71. We used the relative increase of the neutron monitor count rate above the galactic cosmic rays flux from the neutron monitor with the highest record to characterize the strength of each event. We found that, while weak and medium GLE events have very different spectra, soft or hard, without any apparent relation to the events strength, all strong GLE evens (with the integral intensity exceeding 1000 %*hr) are characterized by a very hard spectrum. This allows to evaluate the lower-energy fluence of solar energetic particles for strong GLE events in the pre-space era.
Speaker: Ms Eleanna Asvestari (ReSoLVE centre of excellence, University of Oulu, Finland)
• 12:00
Assessment of Source and Transport Parameters of Relativistic SEPs Based on Neutron Monitor Data 15m
Within the Horizon 2020 project HESPERIA, we are developing a software package for the direct inversion of Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) based on data of the worldwide network of Neutron Monitors (NMs). The new methodology to study the release processes of relativistic solar energetic particles (SEPs) makes use of several models, including: the propagation of relativistic SEPs from the Sun to the Earth, their transport in the Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere, as well as the detection of the nucleon component of the secondary cosmic rays by the ground based NMs. The combination of these models allows to compute the expected ground-level NM counting rates caused by a series of instantaneous releases from the Sun. The proton release-time profile at the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions are then inferred by fitting the NM observations with modeled NM counting rates. In the presentation, the used models for the different processes and first findings with the new software will be presented.
Speaker: Dr Rolf Bütikofer (University of Bern, Switzerland)
• 11:00 12:45
Parallel: Parallel 2B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Frank SCHROEDER
• 11:00
Radio detection of cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array. 15m
The very low statistics of cosmic rays above the knee region make their study possible only through the detection of the extensive air showers (EAS) produced by their interaction with the constituents of the atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory located in Argentina is the largest high energy cosmic rays detection array in the world, composed of fluorescence telescopes, ground particle detectors and radio antennas. The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is composed of 153 autonomous radio stations that sample in the 30 MHz to 80 MHz frequency range the radio emission of the extensive air showers. It covers a surface of 17 km$^2$, has a 2$\pi$ sensitivity to arrival directions of UHECR and provides a duty cycle close to 100\%. The electric field emitted by the secondary particles of an air shower is highly correlated to the primary cosmic ray characteristics like energy and mass and the emission mechanisms are meanwhile well understood. In this contribution, recent progress on the reconstruction of the mass composition and energy measurements with AERA will be presented.
Speaker: Mr Florian Gaté (SUBATECH)
• 11:15
The Tunka Radio Extension, an antenna array for high-energy cosmic-ray detection 15m
The study of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10^16-10^19 eV is of special interest since in this range a transition from galactic to extragalactic sources is supposed. The Tunka-133 array in the Tunka Valley (close to lake Baikal, Russia) detects air-Cherenkov emission of extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by cosmic rays in the energy range of 10^16.5 - 10^18 eV. In 2012, it was extended with Tunka Radio Extension (Tunka-Rex), which now consists of 44 antennas detecting the radio emission of EAS in the frequency range of 30-80 MHz. Three years of joint operation of Tunka-Rex and Tunka-133 have shown that a calibrated radio array can be used for independently test the scale of the cosmic-ray energy. Furthermore, by direct comparison of the reconstructed depth of the shower maximum measured by Tunka-133 and Tunka-Rex, it was shown that the precision of the radio technique for the shower maximum is at least 40 g/cm2. As next step the cross-calibration of Tunka-Rex and the recently deployed array of scintillation stations Tunka-Grande is planned, which provides the possibility of a combined measurement of the muonic and electromagnetic components of air-showers with sensitivity to the shower maximum and full duty-cycle. Exploiting the complementary muon/radio information, it should be possible to improve the mass separation in cosmic-ray spectra.
Speaker: Mrs Yulia Kazarina (API ISU)
• 11:30
Characteristics of EAS neutron component obtained with PRISMA-32 array 15m
The report is devoted to the results of the EAS neutron component investigations by means of the PRISMA-32 setup. The setup consists of 32 en-detectors and enables to register the delayed thermal neutrons accompanying showers. For registration of thermal neutrons, the scintillator based on 6Li isotope is used in the detectors. The following results of processing of experimental data over a long period of time are presented: the temporal distributions of neutrons in EAS, the spatial distribution function of neutrons in EAS and preliminary results on the EAS neutron multiplicity spectrum.
Speaker: Dr Dmitry Gromushkin (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 11:45
New detectors of the Experimental complex NEVOD for multi-component EAS detection 15m
Experimental complex NEVOD is located at MEPhI campus (Moscow) and is the only in the world that allows to conduct a fundamental (astroparticle physics) and an applied (monitoring and forecasting the state of near-terrestrial space) research with the use of cosmic rays on the surface of the Earth over the entire range of zenith angles (from 0 to 180 degrees) in a record energy range (1 – 10^10 GeV). The complex NEVOD includes the number of unique facilities for detection of cosmic rays at ground level: the large volume Cherenkov water detector (CWD) (2000 m^3) with a spatial lattice of quasi-spherical modules (QSM); the vertically deployed around CWD coordinate-tracking detector DECOR (total setup area 70 m^2) with a high spatial and angular resolution for the detection of particles at large zenith angles up to horizon; the muon hodoscope URAGAN with the total setup area 46 m^2 continuously registering muon flux in the range of zenith angles from 0 to 80 degrees; the system of calibration telescopes (SCT) that allows to calibrate the response of QSMs and record the electromagnetic and muon components of EAS; a prototype detector for the measurements of atmospheric neutrons PRISMA-32. At present, to provide multi-component registration of EAS, new detectors are being developed around the complex. Along with traditional components, such as electron-photon and muon, the simultaneous detection of EAS neutron component and local muon density spectra will be conducted. An important feature of the complex is the possibility of detecting of muon bundles energy deposit by means of the NEVOD Cherenkov water calorimeter. For detection of EAS in the energy range 10^15 – 10^17 eV by means of a traditional technique, the NEVOD-EAS array of scintillation detectors will be installed around the NEVOD. NEVOD-EAS has a clustered structure of detection system formation and consists of scintillation counters earlier used in EAS-TOP and KASCADE-Grande facilities. The array for detection of EAS neutron component URAN is now under construction in MEPhI in collaboration with INR RAS. The basic detector for the URAN setup is en-detector sensitive to both thermal neutrons and electromagnetic components. En-detector is based on a thin layer of alloyed mixture of inorganic scintillator ZnS(Ag) with B2О3 as a target for neutrons. Another facility aimed to sufficiently improve an ability of the coordinate-tracking detector and to solve a problem called ‘muon puzzle’ is the detector TREK designed for a joint operation with Cherenkov water detector NEVOD and based on the drift chambers from the neutrino experiment at the IHEP accelerator U-70 (Protvino). Detector TREK is a large-scale installation and consists of two X- and Y-oriented drift chamber vertical planes, mounted on the outer wall of the Cherenkov water detector building. The effective area of the detector will be about 270 m^2. The new detector will exceed the currently operating coordinate detector DECOR in the effective area by 3.5 times and in the separation of muon tracks in groups by 10 times. These new detectors together with the existing facilities of the NEVOD complex will provide never early used experimental abilities and give a unique possibility to carry out the study of EAS characteristics at a new experimental level.
Speaker: Prof. Igor Yashin (National Research Nuclear University MEPHI)
• 12:00
Detection of extensive air showers with the NEVOD-EAS cluster type detector 15m
At the experimental complex NEVOD-DECOR (MEPhI, Moscow), investigations of muon bundles at different zenith angles are based on the analysis of the local muon density spectra (LMDS). However, this technique of primary particle energy estimation has rather low accuracy (σ(lgE0) ~ 0.4) due to contribution of extensive air showers of different energies registered at different (random) distances from the axis to the events with a fixed local muon density. The deployment of a shower array around the NEVOD-DECOR complex for detection of EAS by means of a traditional method in the energy range 10^15 – 10^17 eV would allow to determine the shower size, its arrival direction and axis position and therefore to decrease the uncertainties of primary energy estimations obtained by means of the LMDS technique. In 2015, the central part of the NEVOD-EAS shower array was created and launched into operation. The measuring system includes 5 clusters (with characteristic dimensions of about 20×20 m^2) of 16 scintillation counters of particles of the EAS electron component. The total area of the NEVOD-EAS central part is about 10^4 m^2. The results of the study of the responses and temporal characteristics of the NEVOD-EAS central part clusters, critical for the reconstruction of shower parameters, as well as the examples of events registered by the shower array jointly with the NEVOD-DECOR setup are presented.
Speaker: Mr Ivan Shulzhenko (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 12:15
The Extreme Energy Events array: status, perspectives and results 15m
The Extreme Energy Events Project is aimed to the study of Cosmic Rays and Cosmic Rays-related phenomena, via a synchronous sparse array of 50 tracing detectors (growing), deployed over a broad area covering 10 degrees in latitude and 11 in longitude. The array is composed by both clusters and stand-alone stations, each made of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), with a 100 ps single station time resolution and 50 ns UTC time resolution. Data collected by the single stations are sent to the CNAF center, the biggest computing facility of the italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), where they are stored, reconstructed and made available for being analysed. At present the experiment is performing the "RUN 2", ending in May 2016; the whole data set collected since fall 2014 has already exceeded 20 billions of muon tracks. The main fields of investigation extend over a broad energy range and topics. From the study of local muon flux dependance on solar activity to the investigation of the upward-going component of muon flux traversing the EEE stations; from the search for anisotropies at the the sub-TeV scale to the observation of km-scale EAS. In addition, the broad distribution of EEE telescope clusters allows the search for possible long distance EAS correlations. The EEE Project has also an educational and outreach aim, involving high school students and teachers in constructing and taking care of the stations, while also accessing the data for educational purposes. EEE is a rapidly growing experiment, in terms of both surface coverage and scientific topics, addressed by using a tracking and high resolution timing technique. The status of the array, main analysis results and oncoming development and plans are being presented.
Speaker: Ivan Gnesi (TO)
• 12:30
The EUSO@TurLab project 15m
The TurLab facility is a laboratory, equipped with a rotating tank, located at the Physics Department of the University of Torino. It consists of a 5 m diameter tank, which is used for fluid-dynamics studies. The system has been built mainly to study problems where system rotation plays a key role in the fluid behaviour such as in atmospheric and oceanic flows at different scales. The tank can be filled with different fluids of variable density, which enables studies in layered conditions such as sea waves. The tank can be also used to simulate the terrestrial surface with the optical characteristics of different environments such as snow, grass, ocean, land, fogs and clouds. The tank is located in an extremely dark place so that the light intensity can be controlled artificially. Currently the TurLab facility is also used to perform experiments related to the observation of UHECRs from space using the fluorescence technique, as in the case of the JEM-EUSO mission, where the diffuse night brightness and artificial light sources can vary significantly in time and space inside the field of view of the telescope. The ongoing activity at the TurLab facility in the framework of the JEM-EUSO mission (EUSO@TurLab) will be presented.
Speaker: Dr Hiroko Miyamoto (Univ. Torino & INFN Torino)
• 12:45 14:30
Lunch Break
• 14:30 16:15
Parallel: Parallel 3A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Prof. Igor Yashin (National Research Nuclear University MEPHI)
• 14:30
Measurement of specific number of muon-induced neutron using Large Volume Detector 15m
The LVD detects the cosmic ray muons at mean energy of 280 GeV and muon-induced neutrons. The result of analysis of seasonal modulations of muon-induced neutrons is presented. Based on the data from three towers during 16 years the parameters of neutron variations are defined. Sources of muon-induced neutron seasonal variations are both the change of muon flux intensity and the change in muon energy. The measurement of the specific number of muon-induced neutrons during summer and winter allows to determine the muon energy variation.
Speaker: Dr Natalia Agafonova (Institute for Nuclear Research RAS)
• 14:45
Effect of pressure and temperature corrections on muon flux variability at ground level and underground 15m
In Low Background Laboratory at Institute of Physics Belgrade, plastic scintillators are used to continuously monitor flux of the muon component of secondary cosmic rays. Measurements are performed on the surface as well as underground (25 m.w.e depth). Temperature effect on muon component of secondary cosmic rays is well known and several methods to correct for it are already developed and widely used. Here, we apply integral method to calculate correction coefficients and use GFS (Global Forecast System) model to obtain atmospheric temperature profiles. Atmospheric corrections reduce variance of muon flux and lead to improved sensitivity to transient cosmic ray variations. Influence of corrections on correlation with neutron monitor data is discussed.
Speaker: Mr Mihailo Savic (Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade)
• 15:15
Results of measurements of the flux of albedo muons with NEVOD-DECOR experimental complex 15m
Results of investigations of near-horizontal muons in the range of zenith angles of 85 – 94 degrees are presented. In this range, so-called ‘albedo’ muons (atmospheric muons scattered in the soil into the upper hemisphere) are detected. Measurements have been conducted with the NEVOD-DECOR experimental complex located in MEPhI. The basis of the complex is the Cherenkov water detector NEVOD with volume of 2000 m^3 equipped with a dense spatial lattice of quasi-spherical modules (91 in total). Each module consists of six FEU-200 PMTs with flat photocathodes directed along the axes of the orthogonal coordinate system. The coordinate detector DECOR is deployed around the NEVOD. DECOR includes eight vertically suspended eight-layer assemblies of plastic streamer tube chambers with resistive cathode coating with the total sensitive area of 70 m^2. Chamber planes are equipped with two-coordinate external strip readout system. Detector DECOR allows to localize tracks of near-horizontal muons with high angular (better than 1 degree) and spatial (about 1 cm) accuracy and allows to determine the muon direction by means of time-of-flight technique. More reliably, muon direction can be obtained from the NEVOD data using the directionality of Cherenkov light. The combination of these two independent methods allows to determine the muon direction with the probability of error less than 10^-8. We have analyzed the data collected of the experimental complex in 2002 - 2004 (10548 hours of ‘live’ time) and also data acquired after modernization of the NEVOD measuring system in 2011-2015 (19843 hours of ‘live’ time). About 5.46 million muons with the threshold energy of 7 GeV were detected in the range of zenith angle 85 – 94 degrees. Moreover 5717 muons were detected with zenith angles more than 91 degrees, so these particles are albedo muons. Measurement results are compared with simulations based on different models of muon scattering in soil.
Speaker: Dr Semen Khokhlov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute))
• 15:30
Muon hodoscope study of characteristics of Forbush decreases accompanied by magnetic storms 15m
Muon hodoscope URAGAN detects the flux of cosmic ray muons on the Earth’s surface simultaneously from various directions (hodoscope mode). This allows study the energy, angular and spatial-temporal characteristics of variations of the cosmic ray muon flux during Forbush decreases (FD). These characteristics are obtained for the FDs detected in the period from 2006 to 2014. The results of the analysis of FDs accompanied by magnetic storms are discusses. The FDs characteristics are compared with the parameters of the near-Earth space and the magnetic field of the Earth. The results of comparison of the various characteristics of FDs, accompanied and not accompanied by magnetic storms, are presented.
Speaker: Dr Natalia Barbashina (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 15:45
Investigation of muon flux anisotropy during CME 15m
According to CACTus catalog, during periods of high solar activity every day up to tens of coronal mass ejections are observed. Such ejections have an impact on the flux of cosmic rays that permeate the space around us. Unlike most ground cosmic ray detectors, muon hodoscope URAGAN (MEPhI) allows to investigate not only the integrated counting rate of registered particles, but also the spatial and angular characteristics of the muon flux at ground level. This approach to particle detection allows fixing changes in the flux of cosmic rays not only for geoeffective CMEs, but also for the ejections, the front of which is directed to the opposite side of the Sun. The results of the study of different types of CMEs at different stages of the solar activity from 2008 to 2015 are presented.
Speaker: Mr Ivan Astapov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute))
• 16:00
Model CRAC:PPII for atmospheric ionization due to precipitating protons 15m
A new model of the family of CRAC models, CRAC:PPII (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Proton Precipitation Induced Ionization), is presented. The model calculates atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating protons. The CRAC:PPII is based on Monte Carlo simulation. The simulations were performed using GEANT 4 simulation tool PLANETOCOSMICS with NRLMSISE 00 atmospheric model. It explicitly considers various physical processes. The results from the simulations are given as look-up table representing the ionization yield function. The CRAC:PPII model is applicable to the entire atmosphere (up to 100 km) considering a given proton's spectrum. The ionization yields is compared with a parametrization models, older models based on Monte Carlo and analytic models for various energies of incident precipitating proton.
Speaker: Anton Artamonov (University of Oulu)
• 14:30 16:30
Parallel: Parallel 3B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Rosa Coniglione (LNS)
• 14:30
The Local Bubble in the interstellar medium and the origin of the low energy cosmic rays 15m
An analysis of the energy spectra of cosmic rays (CR) and particularly the precise data from the AMS-02 experiment leads us to propose that there is evi- dence to support our previous claim that the Local Bubble (LB) in the interstellar medium (ISM) is correct. It is suggested that the bulk of CR below about 100 GV come from the large number of supernova remnants (SNR) in the LB and responsible for it which appear to have occurred some 106years ago. At higher rigidities the contribution from a ’Local Source’, a single SNR generated some 105 years ago seems to dominate up to, at least 1 TV.
Speaker: Prof. Arnold Wolfendale (Durham University)
• 14:45
HelMod: a Comprehensive Treatment of the Cosmic Ray transport through the Heliosphere 15m
HelMod is a code accounting for the transport of Galactic cosmic rays through the inner heliosphere down to Earth. It is based on a 2-D Monte Carlo approach and includes a general description of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of the diffusion tensor, thus, properly embedding the particle drift effects. The model has been tuned in order to fit the data observed outside the ecliptic plane at several distances from the Earth and the spectra observed near the Earth for both, high and low solar activity levels. A stand-alone python module, fully compatible with GalProp, was developed for a comprehensive calculation of solar modulation effects, resulting in a newly suggested set of local interstellar spectra.
Speaker: Davide Grandi (INFN MIB)
• 15:00
Nonlocal relativistic diffusion (NORD) model covering diffusive, superdiffusive and ballistic regimes of cosmic ray transport in the Galaxy 15m
Many modern calculations of galactic cosmic rays propagation (GalProp, Dragon, Usine and other codes) are based on the use of the local diffusion model acceptable for the Brownian motion (Bm) of a heavy particle through the system of uniformly distributed uncorrelated (i.e. non-interacting) with each other molecules. However, about 60 years ago it has been found that the Bm model is unable to adequately describe the diffusion in turbulent media [1-3]. Without doubt, interstellar medium belongs to this class, and for this reason we began to develop the nonlocal transport theory on the base of fractional calculus fifteen years ago [4]. The long series of calculations performed to 2010 confirmed the effectiveness of the approach, improved parameters and led eventually to involving the relativistic speed limit [5]. The obtained model was described in [5,6] and called NoRD in [7]. In this report, we present an improved version (NoRD+) of this model obtained by specifying the Kolmogorov spectra of turbulence near the inertial interval edges. It required to pass from fractional differential operators to their tempered generalizations and as a result to tempered power law of distributions for free path lengths. We coordinate energy dependent diffusion coefficient and truncation factor. For energies small enough for interested temporal and spatial scales, diffusion is normal. Extrapolating this dependence on large energies, we observe superdiffusive motion and tendency to ballistic motion. NoRD+ propagators are calculated and analyzed. The leaky-box' approximation to NoRD+ is considered in details. Acknowledgment. The authors thank the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (16-01-00556) and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (2014/296) for financial support. References 1. Monin A.S., Yaglom A.M. Statistical fluid mechanics, Vol.II: mechanics of turbulence, 1965. 2. Heisenberg W. Proc Roy. Soc, A195 (1948) 402. (1948). 3. Tchen C. M. Physical Review 93 (1954) 4. 4. Lagutin A.A., Nikulin Y.A., Uchaikin V.V. Nuclear Physics B-Proceedings Supplements 97 (2001) 267. 5. Uchaikin V. V. JETP letters 91 (2010) 105. 6. Uchaikin V.V. Physics-Uspekhi 56 (2013) 1074. 7. Uchaikin V. V., Sibatov R. T. IJARSET 11 (2015) 1081.
Speaker: Dr Renat Sibatov (Ulyanovsk State University)
• 15:15
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF A DYNAMIC SPIRAL-ARMED PARTICLES PROPAGATION MODEL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF COSMIC RAYS? 15m
Over the years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy, based on the energy dependence of the secondary to primary ratios in galactic cosmic rays. We develop a fully three dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays in the Milky Way. This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the cosmic ray acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms and with these spiral arms being dynamic: particle density distributions become dependent on the energy, spectral indices of CRs become "harder" on one side of the spiral arm and "softer" on the other side. Secondary to primary particle ratios and the effect on the K-capture isotopes are reported.
Speaker: Mr David Benyamin (The Hebrew University)
• 15:30
Study of the muon component of the extensive air showers initiated by ultra high energy primary cosmic rays 15m
The current large area cosmic ray detector arrays measure the net flux and arrival-time of the charged particles produced in an extensive air shower (EAS). The detection and measurement of the individual charged particle tracks will help in identifying the primary cosmic ray and in probing the anomalies in QCD interactions at high energies, which is beyond the reach of the current accelerators. The recent attempts of studying the individual muon tracks are limited in their expandability to larger arrays and can only probe primary particles with energy up to about 10^15.5 eV. We plan to develop a multi stage large area detector system, beyond the reach of current surface arrays which would be able to measure the net energy deposit, reconstruct individual muon tracks and would also have partial efficiency in measuring the hadronic components in an EAS. Such a detector system may consist of optical telescopes, scintillators and efficient large area gaseous tracking detectors available at relatively low production costs. We quantify the requirements for such a detector system, by performing a CORSIKA-based simulation study of the energy and lateral spread of the muon component of EAS, and their correlation to the depth of shower maximum.
Speaker: Dr Moon Moon Devi (Weizmann Institute of Science)
• 15:45
Ultra-forward particle production from CGC+Lund fragmentation 15m
We present an analysis of LHC data on ultra-forward inclusive hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The probed kinematical regime features the onset of gluon saturation effects controlled by a perturbative momentum scale Qs. The assumption of a partonic spectrum dominated by gluon saturation of the target, which we describe with a BK-evolved unintegrated gluon distribution, allows us to use a Monte-Carlo event generator combining a perturbative approach to parton production based on the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formalism with an implementation of hadronization in the framework of the Lund string fragmentation model. Through this approach we achieve a good description on transverse momentum spectra of charged particles as well as neutral pions at RHIC and LHC energies, and nuclear modification factors for proton-lead collisions at LHC. Being forward particle production of key importance in the development of air showers, we stress that this approach allows for a theoretically controlled extrapolation of our results to the scale of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, thus serving as startpoint for future works on this topic.
Speaker: Mr Pablo Guerrero Rodríguez (UGR)
• 16:00
On the inverse problem for extragalactic cosmic ray nuclei with energies 10**18 to 10**20 eV 15m
The inverse problem of cosmic ray transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is considered. The analysis of Auger data on energy spectrum, energy dependence of mean logarithm of atomic mass number and its variance allows definite conclusions on the shape of the source spectrum in the frameworks of the inverse problem approach. The discussion on regularization procedure for considered ill-posed problem is presented.
• 16:15
Energy characteristics of multi-muon events in a wide range of zenith angles 15m
Study of the energy characteristics of EAS muon component with an increase the primary particle energy can be a key to solving the "muon puzzle" – the problem of muon excess in EAS observed in several experiments. Such investigations are currently being conducted in the NEVOD-DECOR experiment on detection of inclined muon bundles. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD measures the energy deposit of muons, which is almost linearly related to their energy. Coordinate-tracking detector DECOR measures the number of muons and their direction. The detection of muon bundles of various multiplicities in a wide range of zenith angles allows to explore the interval of primary particles energies from 10^16 to 10^18 eV. In the present work, data of long series of measurements from May 2012 to March 2016 are analyzed. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculations based on simulations of the muon component of EAS by means of the CORSIKA code. It has been found that the average specific energy deposit in the Cherenkov calorimeter appreciably increases with zenith angle, thus reflecting the increase of the mean muon energy in the bundles. It is in a reasonable agreement with CORSIKA-based simulations of the EAS muon component. A possible evidence for an increase of the energy deposit at primary energies above 10^17 eV is observed.
Speaker: A. Bogdanov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia)
• 16:30 18:15
Poster Torino Esposizioni (Torino Esposizioni)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino Esposizioni

• 16:30
27-day variation of cosmic rays observed with the Global Muon Detector Network 1h 45m
We derive the daily GG index of approximately 60 GV galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) from the data observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN). GG index is the difference between intensities recorded in the geographically north- and south-viewing directional channels and designed to being the measure the north-south anisotropy free from the atmospheric temperature effect in the muon count rate. We recognize that daily GG index, calculated by GMDN data, is highly anticorrelated with By component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and shows a clear recurrent character (~27 days) related to the Sun’s rotation. We use Fourier transform and wavelet analysis to study quasiperiodic character of data. Detailed analysis are presented for the solar minimum 2007-2008 of solar cycle no.23 and near the solar maximum 2013-2014 of solar cycle no 24.
Speakers: Prof. Michael Alania (Siedlce University), Dr Renata Modzelewska (Siedlce University)
• 16:30
A Large Modular Cosmic-Ray Detector at the Testa Grigia Research Station 1h 45m
Cosmic ray detectors with helium counters were developed over the years at the S.V.I.R.CO: Observatory and Terrestrial Physics Laboratory (Rome, National Institute for Astrophysics). Preliminary details of such kind of detectors were reported by Storini and Signoretti, 2009 [Adv. Space Res. 44, 1221-1231] and Signoretti and Storini, 2011 [Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans. 7, 11-14]. After several performance tests performed at the S.V.I.R.CO. Observatory (e.g. Signoretti et al., 2013, IOP – Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 409, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/409/1/012045) a large modular detector was moved to Testa Grigia Research Station (Italy, 45°56’ N – 7°42’ E, 3480 m a.s.l.). In this work the obtained data are discussed considering the contemporary measurements performed not only at Rome (Italy, 41.86° N – 12.47° E, a.s.l.) but also at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, 46.55° N – 7.98° E, 3475 m a.s.l.). Results confirm that the modular neutron detector is suitable for measurements sites with high particle counting rates, such as mountain or polar areas. This is particularly true because the weight of the heaviest element of the detector is lower than 23 Kg. Hence, only one operator is required for transporting and assembling the whole detector, even in its biggest arrangement (about 800 Kg, including 23 modules with a large helium counter [5.08 cm in diameter, 191 cm long]).
Speaker: Dr Alba Zanini (INFN Sezione di Torino)
• 16:30
A method of measuring parameters of an extensive air shower at Yakutsk EAS array 1h 45m
Proposed a new method for measuring the cherenkov light from the extensive air shower (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR), which allows to determine not only the primary particle energy and angle of arrival, but also the parameters of the shower in the atmosphere - the maximum depth and "age". For measurements Cherenkov light produced by EAS is proposed to use a ground network of wide-angle telescopes which are separated from each other by a distance 100-300 m depending on the total number of telescopes operating in the coincidence signals, acting autonomously, or includes a detector of the charged components, radio waves, etc. as part of EAS. In a results such array could developed, energy measurement and CR angle of arrival data on the depth of the maximum and the associated mass of the primary particle generating by EAS. This is particularly important in the study of galactic cosmic ray in E> 10^14 eV, where currently there are no direct measurements of the maximum depth of the EAS.
Speaker: Mr Lev Timofeev (1988)
• 16:30
Analysis of the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays in #23 and #24 solar cycles 1h 45m
We analyze behavior of the diurnal anisotropy of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in two subsequent # 23 and #24 cycles of solar activity based on the hourly neutron monitor data. We study drift effects in diurnal GCR anisotropy caused by the gradient and curvature of the regular Heliospheric Magnetic Field (HMF), and due to the heliospheric neutral sheet. In order to thoroughly separate sectors of the HMF and its influence on the anisotropy of GCR for positive (A>0) and negative (A<0) polarities of solar magnetic cycle, two minima of solar activity (1997 (A>0) and 2009 (A<0)) have been considered. We use the harmonic analyses method to calculate radial Ar and tangential Af components of the ecliptic diurnal anisotropy of GCR based on data of neutron monitor for cut of rigidities less than 5GV. It is shown that there are differences between the diurnal anisotropy of GCR found in the reliably established various sectors (duration of each sector is ≥4 days) of HMF. These results were compared with the 3D anisotropy of GCR, obtained by the Global Spectrographic Method (GSM), based on hourly data of all operating neutron monitors. An interpretation of obtained results are provided based on the present modern theory of GCR propagation.
Speaker: Mr Witold Wozniak (Polish Oil and Gas Company, Warsaw,Poland)
• 16:30
Computation of complex ion production due to cosmic rays during the Halloween sequence on October-November 2003 (GLEs 65, 66 and 67) 1h 45m
The possible effect of solar variability, accordingly cosmic rays variation on atmospheric physics and chemistry is highly debated over the last years. According to several recent models the induced by cosmic rays atmospheric ionization plays a key role in several different processes. At recent, an apparent effect on minor constituents and aerosols over polar regions during major solar proton events was observed. The ion production rate during a special case of events, namely Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) abruptly increases. These relativistic and sub-relativistic solar protons lead to an atmospheric cascade development with secondaries reaching the ground level. Then it occurs a superposition of the contribution of cosmic rays with galactic and solar origin. The solar cycle 23 provided overall 16 GLEs (http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/GLE.html), several of which are strong enhancements. The period of end October - beginning of November 2003 was characterized by a strong cosmic ray variability, namely a sequence of three events: GLE 65 (28.10.2003), GLE 66 (29.10.2003) and GLE 67 (02.11.2003) was observed. In addition, there were several Forbush decreases, which led to a suppression of galactic cosmic ray flux. As a consequence the cosmic ray induced ion production in the atmosphere and the corresponding ionization effect were subject of dynamical changes. In this study we compute the complex ion production due to cosmic rays during the Halloween sequence of GLEs 65, 66 and 67 on October-November 2003 and we estimate the ionization effect. The time evolution of ion production is computed in a realistic manner. The spectral and angular characteristics of the solar protons are explicitly considered throughout the events as well their time evolution. The ionization effect during the period is computed at several altitudes above the sea level in a region with geomagnetic cutoff rigidity Rc ≤ 1 GV, i.e. over the high latitude, sub-polar and polar regions.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Mishev (ReSolve Center of Excellence, University of Oulu, Finland)
• 16:30
Computation of ion production rate and short, mid and long term ionization effect by cosmic rays during Bastille day event (GLE 59) 1h 45m
The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the Earth stratosphere and troposphere. The induced by primary cosmic ray particles ionization is important in various processes related to atmospheric physics and chemistry, specifically the minor constituents. The ion production in the atmosphere is enhanced compared to the average following major solar energetic particles events, specifically over the polar and sub-polar regions (with geomagnetic cutoff rigidities Rc ≤ 1 GV). During the solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) we observed 16 Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) (http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/GLE.html). One of the strongest among them was the Bastille Day Event on July 14, 2000 (GLE 59), the national day of France, occurring near the peak of the solar maximum in solar cycle 23. It was the biggest solar radiation event since 1989. The proton event was four times more intense than any previously recorded since the launches of SOHO in 1995 and ACE in 1997. The flare was also followed by a full-halo coronal mass ejection and a geomagnetic super storm on July 15 (the Dst index reached a minimum value of -301 nT and the Kp index run up to Kp,max = 9). In the work presented here we apply a full Monte Carlo 3-D model in order to compute the cosmic ray induced ionization during GLE 59. The computations is based on atmospheric shower simulation with CORSIKA code using FLUKA and QGSJET II hadron generators and the ion production rate is considered as a superposition of cosmic rays with galactic and solar origin. The ion production rate is computed as a function of the altitude above the sea level and the short, mid and long term ionization effects relative to the average due to galactic cosmic rays is computed. It is determined the planetary distribution in the Earth еnvironment of the enhanced ionization rate due to solar cosmic rays of the considered GLE 59.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Mishev (ReSolve Center of Excellence, University of Oulu, Finland)
• 16:30
Correlation of AOT with Relative Frequency of Air Showers with energy 10^15 – 10^16 eV by Yakutsk Data. 1h 45m
Long-term series of measurement of spectral transparency of the atmosphere (λ = 430 nm) and atmospheric optical thickness (AOT) measured by multimode photometer CE 318 in the region of Yakutsk array are analyzed [1]. Correlation of AOT with intensity of air showers with small energies 1015 – 1016 eV is found. The variability of aerosol composition of the atmosphere during the registration period of the Cherenkov light should be taken into account since it may affect the quality of determining characteristics of air showers [2].
Speaker: Mr Igor Petrov (Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research)
• 16:30
Cosmic ray measurements at Lomnický štít: effect of barometric pressure. 1h 45m
Since December 1981 a neutron monitor (NM) with 8 tubes is in operation at Lomnický štít (LS), 2634 m asl. Starting in March 2014 a muon detector of type SEVAN is providing continual data too. Barometric corrections for both types of measurements in various time intervals and for different pressure ranges are examined. Comparison of beta to those reported in other papers is done. For determination of pressure coefficient of NM (beta in %/mbar) mainly the data from Jungfraujoch NM as a reference station are used. Long term behaviour and possible dependence of beta on pressure itself is checked until 2015. Values of beta for muon detector are compared with those reported from Nor Amberd SEVAN. We discuss some problems regarding utilization the data from CR measurements at high mountain site of LS for the physical analysis, especially due to local weather conditions. Selected quasi-periodicities observed in cosmic ray records and in barometric presure time series are examined.
Speaker: Karel Kudela (IEP SAS Kosice)
• 16:30
Cosmic ray muons in the frame of a model with heavy particles production in nucleus-nucleus interactions 1h 45m
The excess of muons, which was found in a number of experiments, can be explained in frame of a qualitative model involving a change of nucleus-nucleus interactions at TeV energies (in the center of mass system) with the production of heavy particles. Usage of this model leads to a shift of the EAS development maximum and the generation of high-energy muons and neutrinos. Appropriate simulations of usually observed EAS characteristics (profile of the development in the atmosphere, spatial distribution of particles at the observation level) and, in particular, muon component have been performed on the basis of this model using well-known programs PYTHIA and CORSIKA.
Speaker: A. Bogdanov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 16:30
Cosmic rays recurrence during the early declining phase of solar cycle 24 1h 45m
During the early declining phase of solar cycle 24 an enhanced variability associated with solar rotation was observed in cosmic rays intensity (measured by neutron monitors and space probes) and in solar wind and solar activity parameters. We notice that during the studied period this recurrence was quite stable. It was undoubtedly related to a periodical occurrence of large solar coronal hole near the South pole. We analyze in situ data characterizing solar wind and search the parameter space to choose an optimal set of variables. These variables can influence the recurrent variation of cosmic rays related to the solar rotation period. Based on the above mentioned analysis, we solve the Parker’s transport equation for different solar rotations taking into consideration those in situ measurements. The results of our calculation show high correlation with cosmic rays count rates from neutron monitors.
Speaker: Dr Agnieszka Gil (Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Siedlce University, Poland)
• 16:30
Development of a SiPM camera demonstrator for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory telescopes 1h 45m
The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Consortium is developing the new generation of ground telescopes for the detection of ultra-high energy gamma-rays. The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is participating to the R&D of a possible solution for the Cherenkov photon cameras based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors sensitive to Near Ultraviolet (NUV) energies. The latest NUV-HD SiPM technology achieved by the collaboration of INFN with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) is based on 30 um x 30um micro-cell sensors arranged in a 6 x 6 mm^2 area. Currently, INFN is developing the concept, mechanics and electronics for prototype modules with active area made up of 8 x 8 FBK NUV-HD SiPMs which could equip the focal planes of CTA telescopes. In this contribution, the performances of NUV-HD SiPMs and of multi-SiPM modules will be reviewed.
Speaker: Valerio Vagelli (PG)
• 16:30
Facilities of Athens Neutron Monitor Station (ANeMoS) to Space Weather 1h 45m
In the frame of the comprehensive knowledge, detection and forecasting of the solar –terrestrial relations as well as space weather events, the ground based measurements of the network of neutron monitor constitutes a vital tool for these studies. This is mainly the raison that Athens Neutron Monitor Station (A.Ne. Mo.S) beyond of the provision of its real time data, has also developed several research applications. More specifically, applications such as a) an optimized automated Ground Level Enhancement Alert (GLE Alert Plus) b) a web interface, providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations (Multi-Station tool) and c) a simulation model, named DYnamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application (DYASTIMA), which allows the study of the cosmic ray showers resulted when primary cosmic ray particles enters the atmosphere, have been developed. The two first applications are currently federated products in European Space Agency (ESA) and actually available via the Space Weather Portal operated by ESA (http://swe.ssa.esa.int). On the other hand, the contribution of the simulation tool DYASTIMA, based on the well known Geant4 toolkit, to the calculations of the radiation dose received by air crews and passengers within the Earth's atmosphere led us to develop an extended application of DYASTIMA named DYASTIMA-R. This new application calculates the energy that is deposited on the phantom and moreover the equivalent dose. Furthermore, a Space Weather Forecasting Center which provides a three day geomagnetic activity report on a daily basis has been set up and has been operating at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr). Finally, all above developed services are in essential importance for the fundamental research as well as for practical applications concerning Space Weather
Speakers: Anastasia Tezari, Dimitra Lingri (University of Athens)
• 16:30
Features of behavior of high-energy magnetospheric electrons in 1987-2007 1h 45m
The daily fluence of electrons was selected as the main characteristic of the behavior of electrons with energy> 2 MeV measured by GOES satellites at geostationary orbit, since it is closely related to malfunctions of satellite electronics. It is shown that the increases of high-energy magnetospheric electrons begin during major interplanetary and magnetospheric disturbances, but the beginning of the electron increases lags behind them for 1-3 days. Significantly increased solar wind speed is observed for 3 days before to the beginning of the electron increase, reaching a maximum by the beginning of the increase. It is shown that the electron fluence was weakly linked to the level of geomagnetic activity on the same day, but was correlated with Ap-index of geomagnetic activity observed 2-3 days before. Fluence of high-energy magnetospheric electrons is closely connected with the solar wind speed, especially measured 2 days earlier.
Speaker: Mrs Maria Abunina (IZMIRAN)
• 16:30
FEATURES OF TEMPORAL CHANGES OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN GEORGIA (TBILISI) AND IN POLAND (WARSAW) 1h 45m
We present preliminary results of temporal changes of a surface air temperature based on the monthly data in Tbilisi (Georgia) for the period of 1881-2013 and in Warsaw (Poland) for the period of 1781-2013. We show that global centenary warming in Tbilisi and in Warsaw (northern hemisphere) has the some peculiarities: a) an average global warming effect \delta C = ~ (0.95 -1.10) C/per 100 years is observed in Georgia and in Poland for 1881-2013, b) a warming effect is about twice larger in winter season (delta C ~ 1.50 C /per 100 years) than in other seasons (average warming effect for these seasons delta C ~0.71 C/per 100 years) based on Tbilisi data; while by data of Poland the seasonal effect of the global warming is 2-3 times less. We recognize that a centenary warming is mainly related to the increase of solar activity (estimated by relative sunspot numbers (RSSN)); particularly, a time interval about 80 years (1885-1965), when a correlation coefficient r = 0.82 between RSSN and T, solar activity contributes decisively in the global warning (delta C ~1.10 C/per 100 years). For Last 40-50 years (1960- 2013), when human activities increased significantly, a global warning effect almost equals zero (delta C ~0.05 C/per 100 years). We show that a global warning effect equals zero based on data of Poland for period 1781-1881, when human activities were relatively less than in 1881-2013. Thus, we show that a role of human activities in creation of global warming is to question based on temperature data in Tbilisi and in Poland for period of 1881-2013. Additionally, it is worth to mention about a feeble ~ 22-year periodicity recognized in changes of T by Tbilisi data, most likely related with the 22-year solar magnetic cycles. Generally, changes of global temperature associated with climate needs more fundamental studies.
Speakers: Prof. Michael Alania (Siedlce University), Dr Renata Modzelewska (Siedlce University)
• 16:30
Forbush Decrease in the Torus Model of a Magnetic Cloud 1h 45m
We have calculated the cosmic ray intensity in a magnetic cloud. It is supposed that the magnetic cloud near the Sun has the shape of a torus segment with a magnetic flux rope. The magnetic cloud is located inside the coronal mass ejection with the distribution of the radial velocity. The subsequent propagation of the ejection in interplanetary space is based on an analytic kinematic model. The magnetic field is determined by the freezing-in condition. It is supposed that the cosmic ray intensity in a magnetic cloud is determined by the large-scale electromagnetic field. We have found the zero, first, and second moments of particle distribution function with different energies. The effect of the regions connecting a magnetic cloud to the Sun (“legs” of the loops) on cosmic ray intensity has been revealed. The comparison of calculation results with measurements is shown.
Speaker: Mrs Anastasia Petukhova (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of SB RAS)
• 16:30
High-energy electron bursts in the inner Earth's magnetosphere caused by precipitation from radiation belt 1h 45m
Orbital experiment ARINA on the board of Russian satellite Resurs-DK1 launched in 2006 developed to study charged particle flux (electrons E ~ 3-30 MeV, protons E ~ 30-100 MeV) in near-Earth space, especially high-energy electron precipitation from the inner radiation belt caused by various geophysical and solar-magnetospheric phenomena. Precipitated electrons under certain conditions (energy, LB-coordinate) drifts around the Earth and can be detected as fast increase in count rate of satellite spectrometer (so called bursts). High-energy electron bursts can be caused by local geophysical phenomena (like earthquakes or thunderstorms). Such bursts have distinct features in their measured energy-time distribution. These features contains information about initial location of electron precipitation. In previous works, particle precipitation region searching method is described, the main idea of the method is to use numerical model of electron movement in magnetosphere to find longitudinal distance between region of precipitation and burst registration location on the board of satellite, and with knowledge of L-coordinate define precipitation region borders. Major problem of this type of analysis is the high number of background electrons (atmospheric albedo). Several methods (linear, robust regression, etc.) were used previously to minimize number of background particles involved in analysis. In this report, the new ensemble method was developed, it uses the combining results from several methods in dependence of burst registration conditions. Ensemble method was tested on simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulation of local particles precipitations based on well-known equations of relativistic particle movement in Earth magnetosphere. In experimental data analysis, the results from ARINA experiment for 10 years was used. Several results based on burst experimental data are shown. Ensemble method shows better results than any single method alone.
Speaker: Mr Temir Zharaspayev (National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute))
• 16:30
Holographic Cosmic Ray Observatories: a new approach for measuring primary cosmic rays 1h 45m
The energy, mass and arrival direction of high energy primary cosmic rays are usually estimated measuring at the Earth's surface the properties of the secondary particles produced after their first collision at the high atmosphere. For such purpose, usually, arrays of detectors are used providing, some of them together, an estimate of the parameters defining the primary cosmic ray. Recent technical advances has allowed the development of affordable cosmic ray detectors offering high granularity, outstanding time resolution and tracking capability. One of such kind of detectors, together with a better knowledge of the low-scale properties of the cosmic rays air showers, would perhaps be able to provide a good estimation of that primary cosmic ray parameters. An array of such kind of detectors working independently, as the different points of an hologram, would perhaps allow the improve the present methods of identification of primary cosmic rays.
Speaker: Dr Juan A. Garzon (Univ. Santiago de Compostela)
• 16:30
Improvement of GAMMA-400 physical scheme for precision gamma-ray emission investigations 1h 45m
The main goal for the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope mission is to perform a sensitive search for signatures of dark matter particles in high-energy gamma-ray emission. Measurements will also concern the following scientific goals: detailed study of the galactic center region, investigation of point and extended gamma-ray sources, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emissions. To perform these measurements the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics for energy range from 20 MeV to ~200 GeV in comparison with previous and current space and ground-based experiments. The major advantage of the GAMMA-400 instrument is excellent angular and energy resolution for gamma-rays above 10 GeV. The gamma-ray telescope angular and energy resolutions for the main aperture at 100-GeV gamma rays are ~0.02° and ~2%, respectively. The special goal is to improve physical characteristics in the low-energy range from 20 MeV to 100 MeV. Minimizing the amount of dead matter in the telescope aperture allows to obtain the angular and energy resolutions better in this range than in current space missions. The gamma-ray telescope angular resolution at 50-MeV gamma rays is better than 5° and energy resolution is ~10%. We report the method providing these results.
Speaker: Alexey Leonov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, Moscow, 115409, Russia)
• 16:30
Improving reconstruction methods for radio measurements with Tunka-Rex 1h 45m
Tunka-Rex is detector for radio emission produced by cosmic-ray air-showers located in Siberia, triggered by Tunka-133, a co-located air-Cherenkov detector during night, and by the scintillator array Tunka-Grande during day. Tunka-Rex has demonstrated that the radio technique can provide a cost-effective extension of existing air-shower arrays. Operating in the frequency range of 30-80 MHz, Tunka-Rex is limited by the galactic background, and suffers from local radio interferences. We investigate possibilities for improving the reconstruction of measured radio events using different approaches. Sophisticated methods for signal selection and background suppression on the channel level will be combined to multivariate methods. For high-level rejection of false positive detections, a global fit including timing as well as amplitude information is used. In the present work we report on the latest results of this study and the achievable improvement for the reconstruction of air-shower parameters.
Speaker: Pavel Bezyazeekov (Tunka-Rex)
• 16:30
Influence of the proton initiated at most two electromagnetic sub-cascades events on IACT observations 1h 45m
Speaker: Dorota Sobczynska (University of Lodz)
• 16:30
Injection of Energetic Particles on the Easter 2001 Solar Particle Event 1h 45m
We have calculated the injection of solar energetic particles with relativistic energies in interplanetary space in the framework of the developed simulation of cosmic ray acceleration by shocks in the solar atmosphere. The comparison of the calculation results with particle injection in the Easter 2001 Solar Particle Event (April 15) shows that: 1) The levels of magnetic turbulence generated by the Alfven waves are significantly different in the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space. The boundary of the abrupt junction lies at the 6 solar radii. 2) The levels of the turbulence behind and ahead of the shock front are the same.
Speaker: Mrs Anastasia Petukhova (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of SB RAS)
• 16:30
International database of Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) 1h 45m
Here we present an international GLE (Ground Level Enhancement of cosmic rays) database hosted by the University of Oulu. This database includes all available verified data from the neutron monitor network, for all GLEs since 1956 and a number of sub-GLE events of the last decade. This is an inheritance of previous similar databases developed in USA and Australia. We acknowledge work of Louise Gentile, Margaret Shea, Don Smart, Mark Duldig and Harm Moraal. The database is located at http://gle.oulu.fi The interface and data organization are discussed as well as a possibility for accessing and mirroring the database.
Speaker: Prof. Ilya Usoskin (University of Oulu)
• 16:30
INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD TURBULENCE AND RIGIDYTY SPECTRUM OF THE GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS INTENSITY VARIATION 1h 45m
We investigate a relationship between the temporal changes of the rigidity R spectrum exponent G of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) intensity variation and the exponents Ny and Nz of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the By and Bz components of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence in different periods of solar activity. We show that a temporal changes of the parameters G, and Ny and Nz can be considered as the very essential proxies to study GCR propagation in heliosphere. We demonstrate that a reliable dependence of the rigidity R spectrum exponent G of the GCR intensity variation on the parameters Ny and Nz give an opportunity to construct a more realistic model of transport equation for describing a propagation of GCR in heliosphere when data of IMF absent. For this purpose we construct a 2D non stationary model of transport equation using the exponents G and Ny as an alternative proxies and show a satisfactorily coincidence of a density and a spatial gradients of GCR.
Speaker: Dr Marek Siluszyk (Siedlce University)
• 16:30
Investigation of soft component in cosmic ray detection 1h 45m
Cosmic ray detection is a research area which finds various applications in tomographic imaging of large size objects. In this case, the background sources which contaminate cosmic muon signal require a good understanding of the creation processes, as well as reliable simulation frameworks with high predictive power. One of the main background source is the `soft component'', that is electrons and positrons. A simulation framework based on GEANT4 has been established to pin down the key features of the soft component. We have found that the electron and positron flux shows a remarkable invariance against various model parameters including the muon emission altitude or primary particle energy distribution. The correlation between simultaneously arriving particles have been quantitatively investigated, demonstrating that electrons and positrons tend to arrive close to each other and with low relative angle. This feature, which is highly relevant for counting detectors, has been experimentally verified. The simulation results has been compared to existing other measurements as well as other simulation programs.
Speaker: László Oláh (Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the HAS)
• 16:30
Model CRAC:EPII for atmospheric ionization due to precipitating electrons: Applications, parametrization and comparison with parametrization model 1h 45m
A new model of the family of CRAC models, CRAC:EPII (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Electron Precipitation Induced Ionization), is presented. The model calculates atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating electrons. The computations were carried out in the energy range of precipitating electrons between 20 keV and 500 MeV. The CRAC:EPII is based on Monte Carlo simulation: Compton scattering, generation of bremsstrahlung high-energy photons, photoionization, annihilation of positrons, and multiple scattering. The results from the simulations are given as look-up table representing the ionization yield function. The CRAC:EPII allows one to compute ionization due to precipitating electrons for a given altitude (up to 100 km) considering a given electron spectrum. The ionization yields is compared with an analytical parametrization for various energies of incident precipitating electron.
Speaker: Anton Artamonov (University of Oulu)
• 16:30
Muon telescope at large scintillation detectors with fiber optic readout. 1h 45m
In this paper we give the structure, characteristics and the first observational data muon detector area of 2×2 m^2. As a particle counter is used fiber optic scintillation detectors 1 m2 and 1 cm thick with light collection fibers, pasted in the regular order in the scintillation plate. The detector is combined with a neutron monitor, 10 cm of lead which is used for the absorption of the soft component of the secondary cosmic radiation. The total number of allocated independent areas are 9. Described also developed data acquisition system MARS-10C2 based on programmable logic, integrated with the data selection system on the double coincidence, which allows to simplify the number of communication links.
Speaker: Dr Artem Abunin (IZMIRAN)
• 16:30
Peculiarities of the observed recurrence of Jovian electron fluxes at the Earth orbit 1h 45m
According to the model of transfer of Jovian electrons to the Earth by a magnetic trap formed by interplanetary magnetic field lines connected with the Sun, the variations of high-energy electron fluxes should have 27-day periodicity due to the rotation of the Sun and therefore the magnetic trap as well. It turned out that in reality, under short-lived (about 1-3 solar rotations) magnetic traps, the periods of increase of Jovian electron flux are rather often coordinated with the rotation period of the Sun. However, for long-living traps, especially in 2007-2008, when a long series of Jovian electron peaks was observed over 14 consecutive rotations of the Sun, the average period of these enhancements was only 26.2 days, which is markedly different from the synodic period of the solar rotation, equal to 27.3 days in the solar equatorial plane. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed; in particular explanation for this discrepancy may be obtained by joining the magnetic trap model with CIRs. A mechanism of modulation of electron fluxes by CIRs, acting simultaneously with the trap, can reduce period of observed variations of Jovian electron fluxes.
Speaker: Dr Karoly Kecskemety (Wigner Research Centre)
• 16:30
Production of cosmogenic nuclides in lunar rocks and cores by energetic particles 1h 45m
The era of direct measurements of solar energetic particles (SEP) is limited to the last few decades and largely overlaps with the Modern Grand Maximum of solar activity. However, for many purposes it is important to know the SEP flux on much longer time scale. This information can be obtained only using indirect proxies. Terrestrial ones, such as nuclides C-14 from tree trunks and Be-10 from ice cores may potentially resolve strongest SEP events, but cannot evaluate the average SEP flux in the past because of the geomagnetic and atmospheric cutoff effects. On the other hand, lunar rocks and cores collected during Apollo missions and studied later at the Earth, may provide useful information about the average fluxes of SEP throughout thousands and millions of years in the past. This option has been explored earlier, and here we revise the approach, using the new yield functions of cosmogenic nuclides, specially calculated for the composition of studied lunar samples, and more realistic spectra of SEP and galactic cosmic rays.
Speaker: Mr Stepan Poluianov (University of Oulu, Finland)
• 16:30
Radio Emission of Air Showers with energy E0 ≥ 10^19 eV by Yakutsk Array Data. 1h 45m
In this paper, we present results obtained from the measurements of radio emission at frequency of 32 MHz with energy more than 1019 eV. Generalized formula that describe lateral distribution and depends on main characteristic of the air showers: energy E0 and depth of maximum Xmax was derived. The formula has a good agreement with data at average and large distances from shower axis. Employing the ratio of radio emission amplitude at distances 175 m and 725 m we determined the depth of maximum Xmax for air shower with energy 3.7∙1019 eV, which in our case is equal to Xmax = 769±34g∙cm-2.
Speaker: Mr Igor Petrov (Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research)
• 16:30
Reassessment of the analysis of GLE 69 using NM data - evidence for a two solar proton flux 1h 45m
In January 2005 nearly the end of solar cycle 23 the Sun, namely solar active region NOAA 10720 produced a sequence of powerful solar flares. The fifth of these flares (X7.1) produced solar energetic particles, causing a giant increase in the count rates of the ground-based cosmic ray detectors, namely neutron monitors (NMs), the maximum increase registered at southern polar stations. From the NM data we derived the characteristics of the solar particle flux. Here we use a previously developed method for analysis, which represents the following steps: a detailed computation of the SEP assymptotic cones of acceptance and rigidity cut-offs of the NMs, application of a neutron monitor yield function and convenient optimization procedure. In this study we use the Planetocosmics code and realistic magnetospheric models, namely IGRF as the internal model and Tsyganenko 89 with the corresponding Kp index as the external one for computation of assymptotic directions. According to our analysis in the initial phase of the event, the solar cosmic ray flux near Earth was extremely anisotropic and the spectrum was very hard. The most important we derive clear signature of two independent SEP flux near Earth. The SEP spectra and pitch angle distributions were computed in their dynamical development. The obtained characteristics are compared with previously reported results and are briefly discussed.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Mishev (Oulu University)
• 16:30
Results of Mini Neutron Monitor installed at Neumayer III and Polastern 1h 45m
Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities. They are reliable devices but difficult to install because of their size and weight. Therefore a portable mini neutron monitor (MNM) that can be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides suitable conditions has been developed recently. The first continuous measuring mini NMs (MNMs) are installed at Neumayer III and the German vessel Polarstern. They are providing scientific data January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. NM measurements are influenced by the (variable) Earth magnetic field and the atmospheric conditions at its position. Thus in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. The rigidity dependence is determined experimentally by utilizing several so called latitude scans. The Polarstern was specially designed for working in the polar seas and scans usually twice a year the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV. The results of different latitude scans from October 2012 to August 2015 will be presented and discussed in the framework of yield functions.
Speaker: Prof. Bernd Heber (Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu kiel)
• 16:30
Seasonal variation of the muon flux seen by muon telescope MUSTANG 1h 45m
Muon telescope MUSTANG was elaborated in Greifswald University, and worked there during the period from 2007 to 2015. In July 2015 it was removed to Kiel University where it operates up to the present time. The geometrical response of the instrument as well as the corresponding asymptotic directions in accordance with the new location has been investigated. Accumulated data from this detector for more than one year allow us to study the meteorological effect of recorded muon components and investigate stability of this detector for the whole and for the last periods of operation.
Speaker: Mrs Mariia Abunina (IZMIRAN)
• 16:30
SNRs W28 and W44: old cosmic ray accelerators in molecular clouds 1h 45m
Nonlinear model of diffusive shock acceleration is used for investigation of the particle acceleration in old supernova remnants W28 and W44. We modeled the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnats, shock modification and streaming instability produced by accelerated particles. Comparison with avalable radio and gamma-ray data is given.
• 16:30
Solar Modulation of the Proton Local Interstellar Spectrum with AMS-02, Voyager 1 and PAMELA 1h 45m
In recent years, the increasing precision of direct cosmic rays measurements opened the door to indirect searches of dark matter with high-sensitivity and to more accurate predictions for radiation doses received by astronauts and electronics in space. The key ingredients in the study of these phenomena are the knowledge of the local interstellar spectrum (LIS) of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and the understanding of how the solar modulation affects the LIS inside the heliosphere. Voyager 1, AMS-02 and PAMELA measurements of proton fluxes provide invaluable information, allowing us to shed light on the shape of the LIS and the details of the solar modulation during solar cycles 23 and 24. A new parametrization of the proton LIS is presented, based on the latest data from Voyager 1 and AMS-02. Using the framework of the force-field approximation, the solar modulation parameter is extracted from the time-dependent proton fluxes measured by PAMELA. A modified version of the force-field approximation with an energy-dependent modulation parameter is introduced, yielding better results on proton data than the force-field approximation. The results are compared with the modulation parameter inferred by neutron monitors.
Speaker: Dr cristina consolandi (university of hawaii)
• 16:30
Solar neutron telescope yield function for solar neutrons and recalculated attenuation length in the atmosphere for neutrons: new computations and applications 1h 45m
Computed yield functions of each of solar neutron telescopes in the SNT- network for solar neutrons is presented. The computations of cascade in the atmosphere were made by Monte Carlo using the GEANT4-based PLANETOCOSMICS tool. The yield function was validated against the measured data for solar neutron event of 24 May 1990. Recalculated attenuation length in the atmosphere for neutrons is presented. In this paper we provide an approach based on new computation about the yield function of SNT- network to solar neutrons and recalculated attenuation length for neutrons in the atmosphere.
Speaker: Anton Artamonov (University of Oulu)
• 16:30
Space Radiation exposure calculations during different solar and galactic cosmic ray activities 1h 45m
The primary components of radiation in interplanetary space are galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic radiation (SCR). GCR originates from outside of our Solar System, while SCR consists of low energy solar wind particles that flow constantly from the Sun and the highly energetic solar particle events (SPEs) that originate from magnetically disturbed regions of the Sun, which sporadically emit bursts of energetic charged particles. Exposure to space radiation may place astronauts and aviation crews at significant risk for numerous biological effects resulting from exposure to radiation from a major SPE or combined SPE and GCR. Doses absorbed by tissues vary for different SPEs and model systems have been developed to calculate the radiation doses that could have been received by astronauts during previous SPEs. For this reason a new application DYASTIMA-R which constitutes a successor of the Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application (DYASTIMA) is being developed. This new simulation tool will be used for the calculation of the equivalent dose during flights scenario in the lower or higher atmosphere, characterized by different altitudes, different geographic latitudes and different solar and galactic cosmic ray intensity. Results for the calculated energy deposition and equivalent dose are calculated during quiet and disturbed periods of the solar cycles 23 and 24, are presented.
Speaker: Ms Anastasia Tezari (University of Athens)
• 16:30
Spatial and temporal variations of high-energy electron flux in the outer radiation belt 1h 45m
The results of observation of short-term and long-term variations of high-energy electron flux in the outer radiation belt, obtained in ARINA and VSPLESK satellite experiments, are presented. Scintillation spectrometers ARINA on board the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite (2006 - 2016) and VSPLESK on board the International Space Station (2008 - 2013) have been developed in MEPhI. Both instruments carried out continuous measurements of high-energy electron flux and its energy spectrum in low-Earth orbits in the range 3-30 MeV with 10 – 15 % energy resolution. A time profile of electron flux in different L - shells has been studied during 2012-2013, and detail analysis of experimental data on ultra relativistic (5-7 MeV) electrons in the outer radiation belt zone (L~3 – 8) was fulfilled. It was shown a large variability of flux of such electrons there. The sharp effects in electron flux (as rise and as fall) in magnetosphere interrelated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections have been observed. The periods of significant (greater than some hundreds times) changing the flux of electrons in the outer radiation belt zone in 2012 - 2013 were analyzed in the work. Comparison between ARINA and VSPLESK experimental data on several MeV electron flux and the results of Van Allen Probes was carried out.
Speaker: Dr Sergey Koldashov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow, Russia)
• 16:30
Spatial distribution of high-energy protons in the inner radiation belt on the data of low Earth orbit space experiments 1h 45m
Measurements of the ARINA instrument on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite (altitude ~600 km and inclination ~70 degrees, since 2006 till 2016) and the VSPLESK instrument on board the International Space Station (altitude ~400 km and inclination ~52 degrees, since 2008 till 2013) in low Earth orbits were presented in this report. Both instruments are identical in terms of physical layout. They can measure high-energy protons in the range 30-100 MeV with 10% energy resolution and angular accuracy ~7 degrees. Data analysis was carried out for the total period of proton flux measurement by the instruments. L-B proton distributions in the inner radiation belt (L<2) were studied in dependence on proton energy. Geographical and pitch-angle distribution of proton intensity were studied for chosen L-shells. These distributions were analyzed during the decreasing part of the 23rd solar cycle and main part of the 24th one.
Speakers: Dr Sergey Aleksandrin (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI), Dr Sergey Koldashov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute)), Mr Temir Zharaspayev (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute))
• 16:30
Study of a Ground-Based Calibration System for Orbital UV Telescopes 1h 45m
One essential requirement for the accurate and precise detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), both with present and future space-based UV telescopes (e.g. TUS, KLYPVE EUSO), is the instrument in-orbit periodic calibration. Here, we present the preliminary results of an extended study performed for finding the optimal configuration of a ground based calibration system for several of such telescopes. For this purpose we used an in-house custom developed software package, capable to simulate different orbital detector geometries and operational parameters as well as different light sources. Since one very important aspect of the calibration in the case of orbital telescopes is to understand the entire Earth's atmospheric effects, from 0 to up to 500 km in the exosphere, we included several atmospheric models in our software and we computed the amount of light transported from the source to the telescope input aperture in various atmospheric conditions. We also investigated possible types of light sources for the calibration and focused on finding the most efficient one, both from cost and mobility point of view.
Speaker: Dr Ana Caramete (Institute of Space Science)
• 16:30
Systematic analysis of the properties of low energy cosmic ray air showers 1h 45m
The recent development of affordable cosmic ray detectors, with both good timing and tracking capabilities, makes very interesting to analyze the possibility of introducing new observables for improving the identification of primary cosmic rays. For such a purpose, a systematic analysis of the properties of cosmic ray showers, induced by light, medium and heavy primaries, in the range of energies between 0.1 TeV and 1000 TeV has been initiated. The simulations are being done using the Corsika simulation program, at different altitudes and latitudes in different countries of Latin America: Mexico, Colombia and Peru.
Speaker: Dr Juan A. Garzon (Univ. Santiago de Compostela)
• 16:30
Temperature effect observed by the Nagoya muon telescope. 1h 45m
The multidirectional muon telescope at Nagoya (35°09’N, 136°58’E) is the most successful at the point of construction multidirectional scintillation telescope. It is working since 1970 and has 17 independent directions: a vertical, on 4 inclined 30º, 49º and 64º and 4 azimuthal directions. The temperature coefficients for all the directions of the Nagoya muon telescope were obtained using three main methods for the temperature effect calculation: the effective temperature method, the mass-average temperature method and the Duperier method. Also, using the long-term data (from 1986 to 2013) of the Nagoya telescope the set of the yearly temperature coefficients was obtained and analyzed.
Speaker: Dr Artem Abunin (IZMIRAN)
• 16:30
THE INVESTIGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMMA-FAMILY FORMED IN INTERACTIONS OF PROTONS AND ALPHA- PARTICLES OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS WITH NUCLEI OF AIR ATOMS 1h 45m
Based on the experimental data "Pamir" in E0 = 5 • 1015-1017 eV were studied the spatial characteristics of the initial γ-families. As the spatial characteristics of the initial γ-families used the value R1E - length (mm) of the initial γ-quantum from the energy weighted center to the first particle with the maximum energy Emax (TeV). The value R1E is proportional to the transverse momentum of the leading particle at a given effective height Hef ~ 1km of formed families (PL = Emax • R1E / Hef). In the paper was considered N = 813 of initial gamma-families, which were registered in the X-ray emulsion chambers (REC) of the experiment "Pamir", with a total energy ΣEγ = 100-2000 TeV and the number nin ≥ 4 with Ein ≥ 4 TeV. The family includes the initial γ- quants, located at a distance R0 ≤ 15 sm from the axis of the family. The experimental results are compared with data MS0 - model. In the experiment, are observed the events with large leading particles in relation to the model. According to an experimental data, in the distribution of spatial characteristics R1E is observed an excess Δp + α = 0.12 ± 0.2 of experimental events with large values R1E> 15 mm, compared with MS0 - model. Thus, the spatial characteristics R1E of the initial γ- families was sensitive to the mechanism of the strong interaction.
Speaker: Dr Khusnudin Nuritdinov (Physical-Technical Institute of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences)
• 16:30
The not so standard Neutron Monitor: An initiative for standardization and the PHENOMENON Package 1h 45m
Neutron monitors (NMs) continuously record the cosmic-ray (CR) primary intensity for more than 50 years. Since the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957, the IGY NM quickly became recognized as an efficient detector for the study of CRs with a world data center (WDC) for CRs, which provides one hour averages of CR intensities, being established that same year. The successor of IGY was the super NM64 which is used until today. In the 1990's NMs followed the revolution of the new technology and started publishing real-time data via the internet. In recent times, an initial effort to bring together as many NMs as possible and store their data into a database (i.e. NMDB; http://nmdb.eu) has grown into a global one, providing 1-minute data in a standard format. The processing of the NM data is often necessary in order to achieve high quality and to implement real time tools. This is not a trivial task, and different NMs apply different procedures. Hence, in this work we present the first step of a larger effort to implement a package of correcting algorithms in open source Python scripts, distributed freely to the NM community via NMDB, aiming to open the discussion on the standardization of the processes for the corrections of NM data and to provide all parts of such a standard data processing procedure. The package as a whole, is entitled PHENOMENON (PytHon corrEctioN algOrithMs for nEutroN mONitors). In what follows, we describe and inter-compare three basic algorithms used in NMs: (i) the Simple Sum algorithm; (ii) the Median Editor algorithm; (iii) the Median plus σ algorithm, providing, example implementations of all algorithms, as well as, tests with different input data.
Speaker: Dr Christian Steigies (CAU Kiel)
• 16:30
The second knee observed in the local muon density spectra at various zenith angles 1h 45m
Local muon density spectra (LMDS) at various zenith angles have been reconstructed from the DECOR data on inclined muon bundles detected at a ground level. In comparison with the earlier DECOR results, the experimental statistics has been increased by 2-3 times for different ranges of zenith angle and muon bundle multiplicity and is now based on about 40,000 h of the setup operation. It is found that the slope of LMDS is increasing above the primary energy of about 10^17 eV. The details of the experiment and data analysis will be presented.
Speaker: R.P. Kokoulin (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 16:30
The SEP event of 775 AD: The worst case scenario over ten millennia 1h 45m
A very unusual enhancement of production of cosmogenic isotopes in 775 AD was discovered recently. Although different hypotheses about its origin were proposed, it is a paradigm now that the event was caused by a (possibly a series of) extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event with a very hard energy spectrum. It appears to be the strongest event over the Holocene thus serving as the upper bound for SEP events. Here we discuss the strength of the event, its spectrum, and atmospheric consequences to be considered as the worst case scenario on the time scale of tens of thousands years.
Speaker: Prof. Ilya Usoskin (University of Oulu)
• 16:30
The trigger system of the NUCLEON space experiment 1h 45m
The NUCLEON detector is in orbit since December 2014 and measuring energy spectrum of Cosmic Ray (CR) and charge composition at 100 GeV – 1000 TeV and Z = 1-30 respectively. The NUCLEON apparatus structure and operation, including the scintillator trigger system are described. Using the detector simulation program the systematic uncertainties in CR energy spectra and charge composition are discussed.
Speaker: Mr Artur Tkachenko (JINR)
• 16:30
Ultimate Ground Level Enhancements of Solar Cosmic Rays 1h 45m
Possible values of cosmic ray (CR) ground level enhancements (GLE) registered by neutron monitor (NM) were estimated for ultimate solar proton spectrum using two different methods. Integral and differential ultimate spectra of solar protons were proposed by Struminsky (2015). The first method is based on statistical dependence of integral flux of >100 MeV solar protons observed by satellites and maximal values of GLE registered by NM. A convolution of solar proton differential spectrum and NM yield function, which is an expected value of GLE, is calculated by the second method. An estimate by the first method varies from 9600 to 1.6*10**5 % for high latitude neutron monitors and by the second method from 1200% to 7.5*10**5 %. Obtained lower limits correspond roughly to GLE values observed already and upper limits are more than two orders higher them. If solar events with proton spectrum close to ultimate occur then they should produce a dangerous level of radiation deep in the Earth atmosphere even at the equator.
Speaker: Dr Alexei Struminsky (Space Research Institute)
• 16:30
Utilization of a shallow underground laboratory for studies of the energy dependent CR solar modulation 1h 45m
The aim of the present work is to investigate possibility of utilizing a shallow underground laboratory for the study of energy dependent solar modulation process and to find an optimum detector configuration sensitive to primaries of widest possible energy range for a given site. The laboratory ought to be equipped with single muon detectors at ground level and underground as well as the underground detector array for registration of multi-muon events of different multiplicities. The response function of these detectors to primary cosmic-rays is determined from Monte Carlo simulation of muon generation and propagation through the atmosphere and soil. The simulation predictions in terms of flux ratio, lateral distribution, response functions and energy dependencies are tested experimentally and feasibility of proposed setup in Belgrade underground laboratory is discussed.
Speaker: Mr Nikola Veselinovic (Institute of Physics, Belgrade)
• 16:30
Variations of the cut off rigidities for the world wide muon telescope network over the period of continues monitoring of cosmic rays. 1h 45m
In this paper the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the World Network of muon telescopes were obtained by the method of trajectory calculations. Calculations were carried out for the period 1950-2020, with the annual resolution. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities were obtained by the model Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1950-2015 and by the model of International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 2020. For the trajectory with rigidity below penumbra the contribution of penumbra was considered in the approximation of flat and power (indices 0 and 1) spectrum of the cosmic ray variations. The results of calculations evidence about total decrease of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities in all the points, which is associated with general decrease of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period.
Speaker: Dr Artem Abunin (IZMIRAN)
• 16:30
Vector anisotropy of the cosmic rays in the beginning of the Forbush decreases 1h 45m
The behavior of cosmic ray density and the anisotropy in the first hours of Forbush decrease is studied during the period 1957-2014. Only Forbush effects followed by the arrival of the interplanetary shock wave were considered. It is shown that already in the beginning of events the magnitude of the first spherical harmonic of anisotropy increases substantially, and its direction changes significantly. The more powerful interplanetary disturbance the more changes are manifested in anisotropy. By the changes of some parameters of the cosmic ray density and anisotropy one can have the information about the heliolongitude of the source of disturbance, and on the further development of the Forbush decrease and geomagnetic activity as well.
Speaker: Mrs Maria Abunina (IZMIRAN)
• Wednesday, 7 September
• 09:00 10:30
Plenary: Plenary 4 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Dr Johannes Knapp (DESY Zeuthen)
• 09:00
Galactic Cosmic Ray Acceleration and Propagation 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Damiano Caprioli
• 09:30
Charged cosmic rays: a review on balloon and space borne measurements 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Piersimone Marrocchesi
• 10:00
Alternative Interpretation of the Knee 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Anatoly Petrukin
• 10:30 11:00
Coffee Break
• 11:00 12:30
Parallel: Parallel 4A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Dr Karoly Kecskemety (Wigner Research Centre)
• 11:00
Application of a full chain analysis using neutron monitor data for space weather studies 30m
An important topic in the field of space weather is the precise assessment of the impact of solar energetic particles on atmospheric processes and air crew exposure, specifically during eruptive events on the Sun. For this purpose an adequate information about solar energetic particle (SEP) specrum is necessary. Since SEP possess an essential isotropic part, specifically during the event onset, the angular characteristics should be also derived with good precision. This can be achieved using neutron monitor (NM) data during a special class of SEP events – the ground level enhancements (GLEs). A precise analysis of SEP spectral and angular characteristics using NM data requires realistic modeling of propagation of those particles in the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere. On the basis of the method representing a sequence of consecutive steps, namely a detailed computation of the SEP assymptotic cones of acceptance, NM rigidity cut-offs and application of a neutron monitor yield function and convenient optimization procedure, we derive the rigidity spectra and anisotropy characteristics of several major GLEs. For the computation we use newly computed yield function of the standard sea-level 6NM64 neutron monitor for primary proton and alpha CR nuclei as well as 6NM64 yield function at altitudes of 3000 m and 5000 m above the sea level. We derive the SEP spectra and pitch angle distributions in their dynamical development throughout the events. Subsequently on the basis of the derived spectra and angular characteristics and previously computed yield functions we calculate the ion production rate and effective dose during the GLEs. Several examples are shown. The derived results are compared with the previously obtained and are discussed.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Mishev (Oulu University)
• 11:30
Solar energetic particle events measured by the PAMELA mission 15m
The PAMELA satellite experiment, operating since June 2006, is providing precise observations of the cosmic-ray radiation in low Earth orbits. In particular, PAMELA is accurately measuring the fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) related to solar flares and coronal mass ejections in a large interval (>80 MeV), encompassing the low energy observations by other space-based instruments and the ground level enhancement data by the worldwide network of neutron monitors. Its unique observational capabilities include the possibility of measuring the flux angular distribution and thus investigating possible anisotropies related to SEP events. The analysis is supported by back-tracing techniques based on a realistic modeling of the terrestrial magnetosphere, enabling to reconstruct the asymptotic directions of arrival with respect to the interplanetary magnetic field. PAMELA results significantly enhance the characterization of SEP fluxes in the near-Earth space, constraining the scenarios for particle acceleration and transport mechanisms.
Speaker: Dr Alessandro Bruno (Department of Physics, University of Bari; INFN sezione di Bari, Italy.)
• 11:45
Solar modulation of galactic deuterons in PAMELA experiment 15m
The first study results for variations of galactic deuteron spectra during 23 and beginning of 24 solar cycles are presented in this work. The data obtained in PAMELA experiment were used in analysis. The solar modulation effect for deuteron spectra in energy range 70 – 600 MeV/n is clearly seen. It is shown that galactic deuteron spectrum can be studied in frame of modulation processes as well as commonly used galactic proton and electron spectra.
Speaker: Dr Sergey Koldobskiy (NRNU MEPhI)
• 12:00
The electronics of the HEPD of the CSES experiment 15m
The China Seismo Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) aims to contribute to the monitoring of earthquakes from space. This space mission, lead by a Chinese-Italian collaboration, will study phenomena of electromagnetic nature and their correlation with the geophysical activity. The satellite will be launched in 2016 and will host several instruments onboard: two magnetometers, an electrical field detector, a plasma analyzer, a Langmiur probe and the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD). The HEPD, built by the Italian collaboration, will study the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts, investigating precipitation of trapped particles induced by magnetospheric, ionosferic and tropospheric electromagnetic emissions, as well as by seismo-electromagnetic disturbances. It consists of two layers of plastic scintillators for trigger and a calorimeter. The direction of the incident particle is provided by two planes of double-side silicon microstrip detectors. HEPD is capable of separating electrons and protons and identify nuclei up to Iron. The HEPD will study the low energy component of cosmic rays too. The HEPD comprises the following subsystems: detector, electronics, power supply and mechanics. The electronics can be divided in three blocks: silicon detector, scintillator detectors (trigger, energy and veto detectors) and global control and data managing. In this paper a description of the electronics of the HEPD and its main characteristics will be presented.
Speaker: Dr VALENTINA SCOTTI (ROMA2)
• 12:15
Major solar energetic particle events on the multi-millennial time scale: Fluence above 200 MeV 15m
A reconstruction of major solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be done for the distant past (centennia-millennia) by using data on the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in stratified and independently datable terrestrial archives (tree trunks or polar ice cores). However, the energy spectrum of SEP is hardly possible to evaluate directly. Here we use a new index, the integral fluence of an SEP above 200 MeV, so called F200, which is related to the effective energy of the production of the cosmogenic isotopes by SEP in the Earth atmosphere. This index is robust against the assumptions on the exact shape of the energy spectrum of the event in a wide range of parameters. Using several records of cosmogenic isotopes, we present a reconstruction of the F200 fluence for major SEP events in the past, and also assess the occurrence probability density function for extreme events. In particular, we evaluate that extreme SPEs with F200>1010 cm-2 may occur no more frequently than once per 10 000 years or even rarer up to never.
Speaker: Prof. Ilya Usoskin (University of Oulu)
• 11:00 12:45
Parallel: Parallel 4B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Joerg Hoerandel (Radboud University Nijmegen)
• 11:00
High-energy neutrino astronomy with KM3NeT-ARCA 15m
KM3NeT is a neutrino observatory being constructed in the deep sea of the Mediterranean. Located on the Northern hemisphere and with a much better angular resolution and improved sensitivity the Km3net-Arca telescope will be the optimal imstrument to follow up the search for the sources of the high-energy neutrino flux reported by the IceCube observatory at the South pole. The KM3NeT collaboration aims at building a distributed research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a km3 neutrino telescope for high energy neutrino astronomy, ARCA, off-shore Capo Passero in Italy and a megaton scale telescope for the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with passing through atmospheric neutrinos (ORCA) off-shore Toulon in France. The intrinsically modular nature of the detector will allow for a staged implementation with increasing size. KM3NeT phase 1, with an instrumented volume of about 0.1 km3 , is under construction. The latitude of KM3NeT-ARCA will allow for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the galactic centre. Due to the characteristics of sea water the direction of neutrinos will be measured with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The expected KM3NeT-ARCA sensitivity will allow to detect the IceCube flux in about one year, providing new data on its origin, energy spectrum and flavour composition, and in five years could give indications at 3-sigma level on some galactic point-like sources.
Speaker: Rosa Coniglione (LNS)
• 11:15
Prospects for measuring the Neutrino Mass Ordering with KM3NeT/ORCA 15m
ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the next generation underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question whether the neutrino mass ordering is normal or inverted by measuring matter oscillation effects with atmospheric neutrinos. The ORCA design foresees a dense configuration of KM3NeT detection units, optimised for studying the interactions of neutrinos in seawater at low (< 100 GeV) energies. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA's multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to accurately reconstruct both cascade (mostly electron neutrinos) and track events (mostly muon neutrinos) with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the potentiality of the ORCA detector both in neutrino mass hierarchy studies and in obtaining new constraints on other key parameters such as $\theta_{23}$.
• 11:30
Development of a Machine Learning Based Analysis Chain for the Measurement of Atmospheric Muon Spectra with IceCube 15m
IceCube is a cubic kilometer detector array located at the geographic South Pole. Its 5160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) are used to detect secondary muons produced either in neutrino interactions with ice or bedrock, or in cosmic ray air showers. In recent analyses of the overall neutrino flux the astrophysical component outweighs the expected prompt component which is produced mainly by charmed hadron decays in the atmosphere. Therefore an accurate measurement of the prompt flux magnitude is a difficult task for a large-volume neutrino detector. Since the energy spectrum of atmospheric muons has no astrophysical component, this flux can be studied to determine the magnitude of the prompt flux which consits of charmed hadron decays and an unflavored contribution. To analyze the atmospheric muons we developed a data mining based analysis scheme. In general high energy muons from air showers are accompanied by a bundle of low energy muons. Therefore, the detection of HE muons within a muon bundle is a challenging task because the IceCube detector cannot geometrically resolve individual muons within a bundle. In this analysis HE muons are selected from air shower events using state of the art machine learning algorithms. Attributes to distinguish a high energetic muon event from background are selected by the mRMR algorithm and the events are classified by a random forest. In a subsequent analysis step the obtained sample is used to reconstruct the atmospheric muon energy spectrum, using the unfolding software TRUEE. The reconstructed spectrum covers an energy range from 10 TeV to 1 PeV. The general analysis scheme is presented, including results using the first year of data taken with IceCube in its complete configuration with 86 instrumented cables.
Speaker: Mr Tomasz Fuchs (TU Dortmund)
• 11:45
Search for Neutrino Generated Air Shower Candidates with energy more than 5x10^18 eV and zenith angle θ≥50° 15m
Neutrino air showers can be formed in any part of the atmosphere passing a long was in the matter due to its physical properties. In general, air showers produced by neutrinos are highly inclined and formed near the ground level, i.e. young showers. Therefore, one should expect a large number of peaks in the signal of such air showers [1, 2, 3]. The goal of our work is to search for air shower candidates produced by neutrino. For this purposes, we analyzed large amount of data from scintillation detectors with different area and energy thresholds [1, 2]. Preliminary analysis of Yakutsk array data indicated the absence of air shower produced by neutrino, but it does not mean that such air showers does not exist. It’s going to need a further analysis of highly inclined showers. In order to do that improved methodology for recording and processing of air showers required.
Speaker: Mr Igor Petrov (Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research)
• 12:00
Energy spectrum of cascade showers generated by cosmic ray muons in water 15m
The spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation from cascade showers generated by muons in Cherenkov water calorimeter (CWC) NEVOD has been measured. This result allowed to improve the techniques of treating cascade showers with unknown axis by means of CWC response only. The techniques of selecting the events with high energy cascade showers and reconstructing their parameters are discussed. The results of measurements of the spectrum of cascade showers in the energy range 100 GeV – 30 TeV generated by cosmic ray muons at large zenith angles and their comparison with expectation are presented.
Speaker: R.P. Kokoulin (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 12:15
Search for strange matter particles with the ANTARES detector 15m
Strange quark matter (SQM), composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down and strange quarks, could be the ground state of hadronic matter. Stable lumps of SQM, named nuclearites, may be present in the cosmic radiation and reach the Earth with non-relativistic velocities. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is sensitive to the signal of massive nuclearites (M_N ≥10^{14} GeV). A dedicated analysis was developed for a flux of downgoing nuclearites, and the ANTARES sensitivity was determined using an extended set of data.
Speaker: Dr Gabriela Emilia Pavalas (Institute of Space Science)
• 12:30
Neutrino oscillations in nuclear media and Lorentz invariance violation 15m
We study three neutrino mixing and oscillations and find the pattern of oscillations in nuclear media and strong magnetic fields using effective Hamiltonian. We observe that for high energy neutrinos, neutrino oscillations are suppressed in the presence of nuclear media. We compare our results with neutrino oscillation in vacuum and also with other works done for two flavour neutrino mixing. On the other hand, Lorentz invariance is a well known fundamental predictions of special relativity but its violation is predicted by some variations of quantum gravity, string theory, and some alternatives to general relativity. We also study neutrino oscillation at the presence of the Lorentz invariance violation in nuclear media. Many attempts have been made to measure Lorentz violations. Our results indicate that, neutrino mixing of high energy cosmic neutrinos can help us to probe neutron stars, pulsars, supernovas and also to check Lorentz invariance violation.
Speaker: Mr S.A. Alavi (Department of physics, Hakim Sabzevari university, Iran)
• 12:45 14:15
Lunch Break
• 14:15 15:45
Plenary: Plenary 5 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Timo Laitinen
• 14:15
Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Roelf Du Toit Strauss
• 14:45
Results on Solar Physics from AMS-02 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Stefano Della Torre
• 15:15
Cosmic ray PAMELA measurements deep inside the heliosphere 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Valeria Di felice
• 15:45 16:15
Coffee Break
• 16:15 18:00
Parallel: Parallel 5A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Raul GOMEZ HERRERO
• 16:15
Quasi-periodic changes in the galactic cosmic rays intensity related to the α–ω effect on the Sun 15m
We established that the amplitudes of the 27-day variations of the galactic cosmic rays intensity and several parameters of solar activity (SA) and solar wind (SW) manifest quasi-recurrent changes with various periodicities. Among those periodicities is a clearly seen cyclicity consisting of 3 to 4 Carrington rotations period (3-4 CRP). We ascribe this phenomenon to the existence of a spatial topological structure (STS) of the magnetic field lines. The STS is created by α–ω transformation with some peculiarities for each individual rotation of the Sun in the inner solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the lower corona. STS according to our assumption exists owing to the asymmetry of turbulent solar dynamo and solar differential rotation transforming the Sun’s poloidal magnetic field to the toroidal (α–ω effect), and vice versa. Studying this phenomenon using wavelet and spectral analysis methods we found an existence of the quasi-periodicities with periods shorter than, and longer than the 3-4 CRP. This quasi-periodicity, 3-4 CRP, corresponds to the extreme interval t of differential rotation periods, t = 35 days -25 days (from poles to equator, respectively) of the Sun. However, we also assume that the α–ω process appears in time intervals corresponding to the intermediate differential rotation periods, as well, e.g. t1 = 26 days -25 days, t2 = 27 days - 25 days, t3 = 28 days - 25 days, and so on, up to t = 35 days -25 days. This finding led us to assume that, in general, broad quasi- periodicities in changes of the GCR intensity, solar wind and solar activity parameters can be related to the joint effect of the turbulent solar dynamo and differential rotation of the Sun being a cause of creation of the STS. Hence, the STS should be very complex pattern containing a broad modes of fluctuations responsible for various types of quasi-periodicities in changes of the GCR intensity, SW and SA parameters (among them in changes of the amplitudes of the 27-day variations).
Speaker: Dr Agnieszka Gil (Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Siedlce University, Poland)
• 16:30
ON NATURE OF AN ANOMALY INCREASE OF THE GALACTIC COSMIC INTENSITY IN THE MINIMUM PHASE OF FORBUSH DECREASE 22 JUNE, 2015 15m
Our attention is attracted by the temporal changes of an anomaly increase of the galactic cosmic, ray ( GCR) intensity ∆N(t) in the minimum phase of Forbush decrease (Fd) observed by neutron monitors on June 22, 2015. We make an ad hoc assumption for alternative explanations of the temporal changes of an anomaly increase of the GCR intensity: (1) that changes (denoted as ∆NR(t)) are caused by the variations of the Earth’s magnetic field in the minimum phase of Fd (due to decrease of magnetic cut-off rigidity), (2) the changes (denoted as ∆Nv(t)) are caused by the growth of diffusion coefficient related with the fluctuations of a structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) turbulence in the vicinity of the heliosphere, where Fd is settled, and (3) owing to superposition of the both ∆NR(t) and ∆Nv(t) effects (∆N(t) = ∆NR(t) + ∆Nv(t)). We have calculated a rigidity R spectrum exponent $\gamma$ of Fd ($\delta D(R)/D(R)\propto R^{-\gamma}$ ) and the exponents $\nu_{y}$ and $\nu_{z}$ of the power spectral density (PSD) of the By and Bz components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) turbulence before Fd, during minimum and in recovery phases of the GCR intensity. We have found that rigidity spectrum becomes softer in the minimum phase of Fd after correction of the intensity of GCR for changes of the magnetic cut off rigidity ∆R, caused by Dst variation of the Earth’s magnetic field. We show that a relationship between $\gamma$ and ν in the minimum phase of Fd ( $\gamma \approx 2-\nu$) is a little alternating after correction of the intensity of GCR for changes of the magnetic cut off rigidity ∆R, but generally remains in the range of values expected from the quasi linear theory of GCR propagation in the heliosphere. We compose a 2D nonstationary model of the Parker’s transport equation for anisotropic diffusion case. Using this model we describe a dynamic of Fd 22 June 2015 taking into account an alternative nature of an anomaly increase of the GCR intensity in the minimum phase of Fd. We discuss the problem of compatibility of results obtained from theoretical modeling and observations by neutron monitors.
Speaker: Prof. Michael Alania (Siedlce University)
• 16:45
TRAGALDABAS: first results on cosmic ray studies and their relation with the solar activity, the Earth's magnetic field and the atmosphere properties. 15m
At the end of March 2016, the TRAGALDABAS detector, located at the Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (42.876298,-8.560372), has completed its first year of life taking data regularly, at a duty efficiency close to 95% of the time. TRAGALDABAS (acronym of "TRAsGo for the Analysis of the nuclear matter Decay, the Atmosphere, the earth's B_field And the Solar Activity) is a cosmic ray detector based on the RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) technology. In its present layout it has four RPC planes of 1.2x1.5 m^2, with 120 cells read-out by pads and around 300 ps time resolution, offering an angular resolution better than 3º, a detection efficiency close to 95% and a zenith angle acceptance near 50º. The first results will be presented related with cosmic rays properties and their correlations with the solar activity, the Earth's magnetic field and the atmosphere.
Speaker: Dr Juan A. Garzon (Univ. Santiago de Compostela)
• 17:00
Forbush decreases caused by expanding ICMEs: analytical model and observation 15m
Forbush decreases are short-term depressions in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Changes in GCR flux is of interest for many open questions regarding Earth weather/climate issues, as well as space travel, adding to the importance of understanding and modeling of Forbush decreases. In our study we focus on the depressions caused by ICMEs which do not drive shocks/sheaths and have smoothly rotating strong magnetic field (magnetic clouds). We consider initially empty magnetic cloud which fills up slowly with particles by perpendicular (radial) diffusion. We will discuss the feasibility of the diffusion-based analytical model with respect to observations, especially regarding the ICME expansion. We acknowledge the support of European Social Fond under the project ”PoKRet”, the support of Croatian Science Foundation under the project 6212 „Solar and Stellar Variability“and of MZOS/DAAD under the bilateral project “CORAMOD”.
Speaker: Dr Mateja Dumbovic (Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb)
• 17:15
Cosmic ray anisotropy in the different situations of the solar wind 15m
Variations of the cosmic ray vector anisotropy observed on Earth are closely related on the condition of near Earth interplanetary medium. The hourly characteristics of vector anisotropy obtained by the global survey method from the data of world wide neutron monitor network during 1957-2013 allow us to investigate connection of the cosmic ray anisotropy with the solar wind parameters. Characteristics of CR anisotropy for various combinations of the interplanetary parameters corresponding to various conditions of the interplanetary medium are compared. Opportunity to judge on condition of a solar wind by cosmic ray anisotropy is discussed.
Speaker: Mrs Maria Abunina (IZMIRAN)
• 17:45
Stochastic modeling of the short-time variation of cosmic rays 15m
We present the stochastic simulation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. With this approach, we model the short-time changes of the GCR intensity at the Earth orbit. The model is grounded on the numerical solution of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary Parker transport equation (PTE). We introduce the solution applying the strong order Euler-Maruyama, Milstein, and stochastic Runge-Kutta methods, and discuss its advantages and disadvantages in the context of increasing the accuracy of the solution of the PTE.
Speaker: Dr Anna Wawrzynczak (Siedlce Univesity)
• 16:15 18:00
Parallel: Parallel 5B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Dr Andrew Taylor (DIAS)
• 16:15
Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station. 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

A precision measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. The results show that the proton flux is smooth and exhibits no sharp structures with rigidity. The detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index is presented. The spectral index is progressively hardening at high rigidities. Solar effect is also discussed.
Speaker: Dr cristina consolandi (university of hawaii)
• 16:30
The first preliminary results of the astrophysical experiment NUCLEON. 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

The NUCLEON satellite experiment is designed to investigate directly cosmic ray nuclei energy spectra and chemical composition from 100 GeV to 1000 TeV and atomic charge range up to Z30. The effective geometric factor of the NUCLEON equipment is more than 0.2 m2sr for nuclei and 0.06 m2sr for electrons. The satellite with the equipment was launched in 26 December 2014. The report presents the preliminary results for the first year of the NUCLEON operation, including preliminary energy spectra of abundant nuclei.
Speaker: Dr Alexander Panov (SINP MSU)
• 16:45
the DAMPE space mission: first data 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) satellite was launched on December 17, 2015 and is in data taking since few days after. It was designed in order to properly work for at least three years and, thanks to its large geometric factor (about 0.3 m2 sr for protons and nuclei), is integrating one of the largest exposure for galactic cosmic ray studies in space. It is primarily optimized for the study of electrons and gammas but it can provide good tracking and calorimetric performances also in the case of protons and nuclei, together with the possibility of ion identification through multiple charge measurements. The information from the various subdetectors (e.g. ion charge measurement, precision tracking, shower topology) allows an efficient identification of the electron signal over the large (mainly proton-induced) background. As a result, the all-electron spectrum will be measured with excellent resolution from few GeV up to few TeV, thus giving the possibility to identify possible contribution of nearby sources. A report on the mission goals and status will be given, together with in orbit detector performance and first data coming from space.
Speaker: Dr Fabio Gargano (INFN Bari)
• 17:00
Study of the performance of the HEPD apparatus for the CSES mission 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

The High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) is one of the payloads of the CSES space mission. The CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission will investigate the structure and the dynamic of the topside ionosphere, will monitor electric and magnetic field and high energy particle fluctuations, searching for their correlations with the geophysical activity, in order to contribute to the monitoring of earthquakes from space. The HEPD is built by the Italian collaboration and has different goals. It will study the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts, the precipitation of trapped particles in the atmosphere and the low energy component of the cosmic rays (5 - 100 MeV for electrons and 15 - 300 MeV for protons). Here is presented a study of the performance of the apparatus to separate electrons and protons and identify nuclei up to iron.
Speaker: Dr Beatrice Panico (NA)
• 17:15
From Observations near the Earth to the Local Interstellar Spectra 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Cosmic ray (CR) propagation from sources to the observer is described mainly as diffusion at high energies, while at low energies there are several other physical processes involved, both in the interstellar space and in the heliosphere. In this work we derive the Local Interstellar Spectra (LIS) of CR species outside the Heliospheric boundary. The proposed LIS are tuned to accommodate both, the low energy CR spectra measured by Voyager 1, and the high energy observations publicly released by BESS, Pamela, AMS-01 and AMS-02. The proton and helium LIS are derived by combining the CR propagation in the Galaxy, as described by GALPROP, with the Solar Modulation computed using HelMod Monte Carlo Tool. The proposed LIS are tuned to reproduce the modulated spectra for both, high and low, levels of solar activity.
Speaker: Nicolò Masi (INFN BO)
• 17:30
Bayesian analysis of Cosmic Ray Propagation Parameters of Spatial Dependent Model: antiproton-to-proton ratio is consistent with Two-Halo-Model prediction. 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

We present the results of the scan of the parameter space for cosmic ray (CR) injection and propagation of Two-Halo-Model (THM). A Bayesian analysis is performed with Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (MCMC). In THM, the propagation halo is divided into two different regions along the z-axis: inner and outer, where CRs will suffer from different propagation effects. We use proton and other light-nuclei data (He, C, Be-10/Be-9, B/C) to determine the relevant parameters and their uncertainties. I will also present the predicted antimatter spectra from secondary production with their uncertainties concerning propagation and production cross sections. Comparisons with conventional model predictions and with new antiproton data from AMS-02 will be presented and discussed.
Speaker: Mr Jie FENG (Academia Sinica)
• 17:45
Lomonosov satellite: the first results 15m Aula Gialla

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Speaker: Prof. Mikhail Panasyuk
• 19:30 22:30
Social Dinner Circolo Esperia

### Circolo Esperia

#### Torino

Corso Moncalieri 2
• Thursday, 8 September
• 09:30 10:30
Plenary: Plenary 6 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

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#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Piero Galeotti
• 09:30
Recent results of Dark Matter Indirect Detection Experiments 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

• 10:00
Recent results of Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

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#### Torino

Speaker: Francesco Arneodo
• 10:30 11:00
Coffee Break
• 11:00 12:30
Parallel: Parallel 6A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Dr Olivier Deligny (CNRS/IN2P3 - IPN Orsay)
• 11:00
New analysis for the correlation between gravitational waves and neutrino detectors during SN1987A 15m
Two major problems, still associated with the SN1987A, are: a) the signals observed with the gravitational waves detectors, b) the duration of the collapse. Indeed, a) the sensitivity of the gravitational wave detectors seems to be small for detecting gravitational waves and, b) while some experimental data indicate a duration of order of hours, most theories assume that the collapse develops in a few seconds. Since recent data of the X-ray NuSTAR satellite show a clear evidence of an asymmetric collapse, we have revisited the experimental data recorded by the underground and gravitational wave detectors running during the SN1987A. New evidence is shown that conﬁrms previous results, namely that the data recorded by the gravitational wave detectors running in Rome and in Maryland are strongly correlated with the data of both the Mont Blanc and the Kamiokande detectors, and that the correlation extends over a long period of time (one or two hours) centered at the Mont Blanc time. This result indicates that also Kamiokande detected neutrinos at the Mont Blanc time, and these interactions were not identiﬁed because not grouped in a burst.
Speaker: Piero Galeotti (Physics Dept. and INFN, Torino)
• 11:15
Past present and future. Dark Matter searches with MAGIC. 15m
The MAGIC TeV gamma-ray telescopes have devote almost a thousand hour of observation time in about a decade, to hunt for dark matter indirect signatures in gamma rays, from various candidate of interests in the sky: the galactic center, dwarf galaxies, galaxy clusters and unidentified objects in other bands. Despite the effort, no hints are present in MAGIC data. These observation are nevertheless not unusable. MAGIC indeed derived the most robust upper limits in the TeV range than any other instrument. These results for now only mildly constrain some classic dark matter models, but are of use in the construction of dark matter models for the next searches, that consider also the missing results from accelerator and direct-detection experiments. In the contribution, we discuss and review MAGIC results, putting them into context, and in perspective with the next generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We will briefly inform about future MAGIC projects regarding dark matter searches.
Speaker: Michele Doro (PD)
• 11:30
Status of the XENON1T Experiment 15m
Astronomical and cosmological observations indicate that a large amount of the energy content of the Universe is made of dark matter. The most promising dark matter candidates are the so-called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The search for these particles is performed with various experimental approaches. The XENON Project, at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), is devoted to the direct search for dark matter particles.  It consists in operating a double-phase time projection chamber (TPCs) using ultra-pure liquid Xenon as both target and detection medium for dark matter particle interactions. The WIMPs can be indeed detected via their elastic scattering off Xenon nuclei. After the successful operation of the XENON10 and XENON100 the collaboration is starting the operation of the next generation XENON1T detector, XENON1T is the first ton scale liquid Xenon detector; it hosts 3.3 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid Xenon and is designed to increase the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. We will present the status of the XENON1T experiment.
Speaker: Marco Garbini (INFN Bologna)
• 11:45
Indications for a cascade component in gamma-ray blazar spectra 15m
The great majority of works on extragalactic gamma-ray propagation accounted for only two elementary processes: the absorption of primary gamma-rays and adiabatic losses. However, recently a number of experimental results were obtained that indicate the presence of a cascade (secondary) component in gamma-ray blazar spectra. We describe and characterize the main signatures of the cascade emission: 1) a high-energy cutoff due to the absorption process of primary photons on Extragalactic Background Light, 2) an “ankle” formed by the primary and cascade components 3) a possible low-energy steepening induced by the Extragalactic Magnetic Field (the so-called “magnetic cutoff”). We analyze a large sample of blazar observations and show that the presence of the secondary component in a spectrum may drastically influence the data interpretation. Namely, the so-called “pair-production anomaly” at Very High Energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) is somewhat relaxed, especially for blazars with hard intrinsic spectra. As well, the recent finding indicating that gamma-ray sources with hard spectra are predominantly located in the directions to the voids in the Large Scale Structure might be a manifestation of the “magnetic cutoff” signature. The work was supported by the RFBR Grant 16-32-00823.
Speaker: Timur Dzhatdoev (SINP MSU Moscow)
• 12:00
The core collapse supernova rate from 24 years of data of the Large Volume Detector 15m
The Large Volume Detector (LVD) has been continuously taking data since 1992 at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (L'Aquila, Italy). The experiment is sensitive to neutrino bursts from gravitational stellar collapses with full detection probability over the Galaxy. We have searched for neutrino bursts in LVD data taken in 8124 days of livetime operation. No evidence of neutrino signals has been found between June 1992 and February 2016. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse and failed supernova explosions out to distances of 25 kpc is found to be 0.10 y^(-1).
Speaker: Dr Carlo Francesco Vigorito (University & INFN Torino)
• 12:15
Realistic estimation for the detectability of Dark Matter sub-halos in the 3FGL and 2FHL Fermi-LAT catalogs 15m
The existence of Dark Matter (DM) is still one of the most challenging open problem in astrophysics. Indirect detection with gamma-rays is a promising way to try detecting this mysterious component of the Universe in the contest of a Weakly Interactive Massive Particle. N-body simulations predict that DM should produce sub-halos in our Galaxy. We use the most updated simulations that include baryonic feedback to give a realist prediction for the number of DM sub-halos detectable by Fermi-LAT catalog. We calculate the flux sensitivity for the detection of halos as a function of DM mass and Galactic latitude and we apply these results to the 3FGL and 2FHL Fermi-LAT catalogs.
Speaker: Dr MATTIA DI MAURO (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
• 11:00 12:45
Parallel: Parallel 6B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Sergey Ostpachenko
• 11:00
Antimatter observations in cosmic rays: cross-field hypotheses and consequences consistency 15m
The antimatter-to-matter ratio in cosmic rays must fit, at once, in the overall scenario of secondary particle production in the interstellar medium and of antiparticle generation in astrophysical and, possibly, exotic sources. In order to estimate the dark matter contribution, for instance, the role of all possible astrophysical sources should be definitely excluded or subtracted. Several attempts were carried out in the literature to explain the the excess of positrons with respect to the secondary component. Basically, all of them reproduce the trend of the observations by setting the parameters of various models within reasonable ranges. We investigate the consistency of the hypotheses at the basis of these models with correlated observations proper of other fields of investigation, including gravitational waves after the recent discovery. The consistency of different observations leads to hypotheses selection and unique predictions of e+ measurement trend up to TeV energies.
Speaker: Dr Catia Grimani (University of Urbino "Carlo Bo")
• 11:15
Latest applications and results with the GALPROP cosmic-ray propagation code 15m
The interest on cosmic-ray (CR) propagation models has increased in the recent years, thanks to their fundamental role in analyzing and interpreting data from a broad spectrum of observatories. More and more precise observations and particular studies require detailed and sophisticated modeling, such as GALPROP. This code has been of fundamental support of many observatories. We have used GALPROP not only to describe CR measurements, including latest AMS-02 and Voyager 02 data, but also to model and interpret the interstellar emission produced by CRs at high energy from EGRET, COMPTEL, INTEGRAL, Fermi-LAT, and in radio and microwaves from radio surveys, WMAP and Planck. Our multi-messenger approach is providing important information on CRs and the interstellar medium. We review our latest studies and results in these topics, addressing also future applications.
Speaker: Dr Elena Orlando (Stanford University)
• 11:30
High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m
A precision measurement by AMS-02 of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays will be presented. Over the last two decades, there has been a strong interest in the cosmic ray positron fraction which exhibit an excess of high energy positrons whose origin is still highly uncertain. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a general purpose high-energy particle physics detector operational on the International Space Station since May 2011. During its unique long duration mission AMS-02 is collecting large amount of data to study the behavior of cosmic ray electrons and positrons with unprecedented precision. This measurement shows that the positron fraction exhibit a rapid decrease from 1 to ∼8 GeV followed by a steady increase. We show that above ~275 GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.
Speaker: Mr Sami Caroff (PhD)
• 11:45
Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m
Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux and the positron flux will be presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Solar effects on the electron and positron fluxes are also discussed.
Speaker: Maura Graziani (PG)
• 12:00
Precision measurement of the (e+ + e-) flux in primary cosmic rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m
We present a precise measurement of the combined electron plus positron flux from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV, based on the analysis of the data collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station. The statistics and the high resolution of AMS-02 detector provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. AMS measurements of individual e+ and e− fluxes show neither e+ nor e− can be described by a single power law. Surprisingly, above 30.2 GeV, the combined electron plus positron flux can be described accurately by a single power law with a spectral index.
Speaker: Prof. Manuela Vecchi (São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo)
• 12:15
Secondary positrons and electrons measured by PAMELA experiment 15m
We present a measurements of electron and positron fluxes below the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity in wide energy range from 50 MeV to several GeV by the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer. The instrument was launched on June 15th 2006 on-board the Resurs-DK satellite on low orbit with 70 degrees inclination and altitude between 350 and 600 km. The procedure of trajectories calculations in the geomagnetic field separates stably trapped and albedo components produced in interactions of cosmic ray protons with the residual atmosphere from galactic cosmic rays. Features of spatial distributions of secondary electrons and positrons in the near Earth space, including the South Atlantic Anomaly, were investigated.
Speaker: Dr Vladimir Mikhailov (NRNU MEPHI)
• 12:30
PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF ANTIPROTON TO PROTON RATIO WITH THE ALPHA MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION 15m
A precision measurement of the antiproton to proton ratio in the primary cosmic rays in the rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV based on 350,000 antiproton events collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station will be presented. The antiproton-to-proton flux ratio reaches a maximum at ∼20 GV and is rigidity independent above 60.3 GV.
Speaker: Francesco Nozzoli (ROMA2)
• 12:45 14:30
Lunch Break
• 14:30 16:00
Plenary: Plenary 7 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Oscar Saavedra (TO)
• 14:30
Electron Acceleration Mechanisms in Thunderstorms 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Sebastien Celestin
• 15:00
Review on Galactic Cosmic Ray Detection 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Dongwha Kang
• 15:30
Impact of the LHC Results on Hadronic Interaction Models 30m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Sergey Ostpachenko
• 16:00 16:30
Coffee Break
• 16:30 18:15
Parallel: Parallel 7A Aula Blu (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Blu

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Valeria Di Felice (ROMA2)
• 17:00
Multispacecraft observation of solar particle events contribution in the space radiation exposure on electronic equipment at different orbits 15m
In the paper we present processing results of flight data from different spacecrafts and different orbits during different solar proton events in 2012. We use data from the elements of Roscosmos space radiation exposure on electronic components (dose sensors developed by Institute of Space Device Engineering and placed onboard of more than 20 spacecraft on navigation orbit), from dose sensors developed by Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics Lomonosov Moscow State University and placed onboard International Space Station (ISS), and from spectrometers placed onboard Electro-L and Meteor-M spacecrafts, functioning at geostationary and polar orbits correspondingly (the data are been supplying in the Roscosmos Monitoring System by Fedorov Applied Geophysics Institute). We determined solar proton fluxes for different events at geostationary orbit according to measurements of Electro-L and GOES spacecrafts as well as at navigation and ISS orbits with taking into account geomagnetic cutoff rigidity for these orbits. Also we determined solar proton flux at polar orbit according to measurements of Meteor-M using algorithm, described in the previous paper. We calculated absorbed dose values from solar proton exposure for different events in different orbits using real sensors shielding configurations and compared with experimental ones during these events. We show that in some cases solar proton dose exposure exceed average value in several times as for low-Earth orbit ISS as for navigation orbit (and consequently electronic equipment failure if accumulated dose is close to its failure level). But if solar proton event is accompanied by high-energy electron flux increasing event, the latter gives more contribution in absorbed dose than the former. We also calculated of single events rate values for different events in different orbits using measured and model solar proton spectra.
Speaker: Dr Grigory Protopopov (Branch of JSC “United Rocket and Space Corporation”-“Institute of Space Device Engineering”)
• 17:15
First Results from CO.R.A. Project 15m
CO.R.A. (acronym for COsmic Rays in Antarctica) is a new international project carried out in the frame of a collaboration between Argentine (UNLP [Universidad Nacional de La Plata] and IAA [Istituto Antártico Argentino]) and Italian (INFN [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare] and IAPS/INAF [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali dell' Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica]) Institutions. The aim of the project is to evaluate the composition and the characteristics of the secondary cosmic radiation in atmosphere at the Marambio Antarctic Base (64° 13’S – 56° 43’W, 196 m a.s.l.), with particular attention to the environmental dosimetric data. The acquisition of such kind of data is relevant for the knowledge of the biological being exposure at high latitudes as for the one at high altitudes. To this end, several passive and active detectors (both for electromagnetic and charged components and for the neutron component covering different energy intervals) were selected and used in measurements campaigns. A detailed description of the project and of the used instruments is presented together with the first results obtained from the recorded data during 2013 and 2015. Moreover, our results were compared with the past few data available for the Antarctic region.
Speaker: Alba Zanini (TO)
• 17:30
Analysis of Superflare “Isotopic Imprints” in Lunar and Terrestrial Samples 15m
Extreme cosmic ray event around AD775, revealed by 14C annual tree-ring analysis, is believed to be the greatest solar proton event (SPE) on a multi-millennial time scale. We aim to study the effect of extreme SPEs on the production of different cosmogenic radionuclides and to compare the predictions with measured isotopic imprints in terrestrial and lunar samples. Simulations of isotope production for some solar flares (23.02.56, 04.08.72, 20.01.05 etc.) show that to produce imprints similar to AD775 its power has to be tens and hundreds times greater. Observed radionuclide ratios set the range of parameters for superpowerful SPEs spectra. Data obtained from lunar sample analysis give a limitation on frequency for these events as one per several thousand years.
Speaker: Dr Alexei Struminsky (Space Research Institute)
• 17:45
Production of cosmogenic radionuclides Be-7, Be-10, C-14, Na-22 and Cl-36 in the Earth's atmosphere: altitudinal profiles and yield functions 15m
Relation between cosmic rays and production of cosmogenic radionuclides is important for many reasons and, particularly, is crucial for several widely used approaches in cosmic ray, heliospheric and atmospheric studies. We present new consistent precise computations of the production of five cosmogenic radionuclides Be-7, Be-10, C-14, Na-22 and Cl-36 in the Earth's atmosphere. For the first time a detailed set of the altitude profiles of their production is provided, which makes it possible to use the results directly as input for atmospheric transport models. Good agreement with the most of earlier published works for columnar and global isotropic production rates is shown. The knowledge of altitude profiles of prodiction is important for many applications of cosmogenic nuclides, such as studies of past solar particle events, precise reconstruction of solar activity on the long-term scale, tracing air-mass dynamics, etc. As an example, computations of the Be-10 depositional flux in the polar region are shown for the last decades and also for a period around 775 AD, and confronted with actual measurements in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.
Speaker: Mr Stepan Poluianov (University of Oulu, Finland)
• 16:30 18:15
Parallel: Parallel 7B Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Mirko Boezio (TS)
• 16:45
Measurement of the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory and its composition implications 15m
Air-showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory were analyzed in order to extract the depth of maximum (Xmax).The results allow the analysis of the Xmax distributions as a function of energy (> 10^17.8 eV). The Xmax distributions, its mean and standard deviation are analyzed with the help of shower simulations with the aim to interpreted the mass composition. The mean and standard deviation were used to derive and its variance as a function of energy. The fraction of four components (p, He, N and Fe) were fit to the Xmax distributions. Regardless of the hadronic model used the data is better described by a mix of light, intermediate and heavy primaries. Also in spite of the hadronic models, a decrease of the proton flux with energy is observed as well as no significant contribution of iron nuclei is derived in the entire energy range studied.
Speaker: vitor de souza (ifsc-usp)
• 17:00
Particle physics aspects in air shower measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory 15m
Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. We will present the different approaches to determine air shower observables relevant for testing hadronic interactions, e.g. for a given primary energy and composition, the number of muons is sensitive to hadronic interactions. We will explain the systematic uncertainties to eventually quantify discrepancies between recorded and simulated data.
Speaker: Dr Markus Roth (KIT)
• 17:15
EUSO-TA fluorescence detector 15m
EUSO-TA is a pathfinder experiment for the space based JEM-EUSO mission for the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. EUSO-TA is a fluorescence detector installed in front of the Black Rock Mesa fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, in Utah (USA). At the TA site, an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed for calibration purposes, since they emit laser and electron beams respectively, with known energy and geometry. EUSO-TA consists of two 1 m Fresnel lenses, with a field of view of 10.5°, that focus the light on a Photo Detector Module (PDM). The PDM currently consists of 36 Hamamatsu Multi-Anode Photo-Multipliers Tubes (MAPMTs) with 64 channels each. Front-End readout is performed by 36 ASICS, with trigger and readout tasks performed by two FPGA boards that send the data to a CPU and a storage system. The detector was installed in February 2015. Tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed and observations of cosmic ray events, as well as those of stars with different magnitude and color index have been done. The data acquisitions are triggered by TA fluorescence detectors, although a self-trigger algorithm is currently in the last phases of development and test. TA, with its large field of view and the surface detectors, allows the cosmic ray shower events’ track reconstruction and with the reconstruction parameters simulations using Offline are performed. Simulations of the detected events are compared with data and the results are shown in this work.
Speaker: Dr Francesca Bisconti (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
• 17:30
The AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory 15m
The Pierre Auger Observatory studies cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10^17 eV. The construction of the observatory in Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina, was completed in 2008 and several important results have been published. In particular, Auger has confirmed the cosmic- ray flux suppression at the highest energies. Presently it is not possible to determine whether the suppression is due to energy losses in transit or if it reveals the maximum energy of the source accelerators. To provide an answer to this question, an upgrade of the observatory, called AugerPrime, is proposed. The key lies in better identification of the primary composition, especially extending to the highest energies. The science case and technical solutions for AugerPrime will be discussed and the upgrade construction plan will be presented.
Speaker: Prof. Tiina Suomijarvi (IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris- Sud)
• 17:45
The space road to UHECR studies in the large exposure era: JEM-EUSO and its pathfinders 15m
Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) stand as one of the pillars of the rapidly developing multi-messenger strategy for high-energy astrophysics and astroparticle physics. JEM-EUSO is currently the most advanced international project aiming at a significant increase in exposure for the study of UHECRs. As a space-based instrument, it will allow for the first time a full-sky coverage with identical exposure and experimental performances, which appears key to investigating individual sources as well as large scale anisotropies, disentangling possible differences between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and uniformly characterising the UHECR sky where a limited number of sources are likely to contribute a large fraction of the observed flux. After the success of the EUSO-Balloon flight and the operation of the EUSO-TA instrument, which confirmed the relevance of the EUSO technology, two important pathfinders are expected to be launched in 2017: a long duration Super-Pressure-Balloon flight of the EUSO-SPB instrument (under NASA's leadership) and the mini-EUSO instrument, to operate from inside the International Space Station (under ASI and ROSCOSMOS leadership). The results, objectives and key features of these missions will be presented, together with the prospects of the longer term JEM-EUSO program.
Speaker: Francesco Fenu
• Friday, 9 September
• 09:30 10:15
Plenary: Plenary 8 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Piero Spillantini (FI)
• 09:30
SH overview 45m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: TImo Laitinen
• 10:15 10:45
Coffee Break
• 10:45 12:15
Plenary: Plenary 9 Aula Gialla (Torino Esposizioni)

### Aula Gialla

#### Torino Esposizioni

Convener: Mikhail Panasyuk
• 10:45
Dark Matter Overview 45m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

### Torino Esposizioni

#### Torino

Speaker: Nicolao Fornengo
• 11:30
CR Overview 45m Torino Esposizioni (Torino)

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#### Torino

Speaker: Johannes knapp