Jun 5 – 9, 2023
Genova, Italy
Europe/Rome timezone

Heavy flavour hadronization in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions: from AA to pp

Jun 8, 2023, 4:30 PM
DAD - Room 1A (Genova, Italy)

DAD - Room 1A

Genova, Italy

Invited Hadrons in hot and nuclear environment Hadrons in hot and nuclear environment


Salvatore Plumari (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)


One of the present challenges for the theoretical understanding of heavy-quark hadronization is represented by the description of the measurements of heavy baryon production in $pp$, $pA$ and $AA$ collisions. The $\Lambda_c/D^0$ ratio observed in $AA$ collisions has a value of the order of the unity, and experimental measurements in $pp$ collisions at both $\sqrt{s}=5.02 \,\rm TeV$ and $\sqrt{s}=13 \,\rm TeV$ have shown ratios for charm baryons $\Lambda_c$, $\Xi_c^0$ and $\Omega_c^0$ respect to $D^0$ meson larger than that measured and expected in $e^+e^-$, $ep$ collisions.
Using the relativistic Boltzmann transport approach coupled to an hadronization mechanism based on the coalescence and fragmentation processes we show the results obtained in $AA$ collisions for $D^0$, $D_s$, $\Lambda_c$ spectra and the related baryon to meson ratios at RHIC and LHC. where we have found a large $\Lambda_c$ production resulting in a baryon over meson ratio of order O(1).
Extending this approach to study the production of hadrons containing multiple charm quark, i.e. $\Xi_{cc}$, $\Omega_{cc}$ and $\Omega_{ccc}$ and we present here new predictions of these productions in different collision systems (PbPb, KrKr, ArAr).
Furthermore, we present results obtained in $pp$ collisions at top LHC energies assuming the formation of an hot QCD matter at finite temperature for these systems and we show the results for the heavy baryon/meson ratio and the $p_T$ spectra of charmed hadrons with and without strangeness content: $D^{0}$, $D_{s}$, $\Lambda_{c}^{+}$, $\Sigma_{c}$ and the recently measured $\Xi_c$ baryon, finding an enhancement in comparison with the ratio observed for $e^+e^-$, $ep$ collisions; with this approach we also predict a significant production of $\Omega_c$ respect to $D^0$ such that $\Omega_c/D^0 \sim 0.15$.

[1] V. Minissale, S. Plumari and V. Greco, Physics Letters B 821 (2021) 136622.
[2] S. Plumari, V. Minissale, S.K. Das, G. Coci and V. Greco, Eur.Phys.J. C 78 (2018) no.4, 348

Primary authors

Salvatore Plumari (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Vincenzo Greco (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Vincenzo Minissale (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)

Presentation materials