8. Nested Autonomy: A Robust Operational Paradigm for Adaptive and Collaborative Ocean Acoustic Sensing
Henrik Schmidt (MIT, US)
Underwater acoustic sensing and monitoring is currently transitioning from the traditional platform-centric, human-controlled sensing, processing and interpretation, toward distributed sensing concepts using networks of autonomous underwater vehicles. However, being dependent on acoustic communication with a channel capacity many orders of magnitude smaller than the air and land-based...
Dr Brandon Southall (Southall Environmental Associates, Inc.)
Sound is centrally important in the lives of marine mammals. We know they make sounds in social interactions and to find objects and their way around. We know they listen for conspecific animals to facilitate breeding, rearing, and other social dynamics. We also believe they listen to avoid predators and environmental sounds to facilitate spatial orientation. Among the 125+ species of marine...
Dr Paul Barker (Loughborough University (UK))
94. Acoustically derived growth rates of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) around Ischia and Ventotene Islands (Italy): preliminary results
Dr Daniela Silvia Pace (Univ. Roma "La Sapienza")
Ivano Pelicella (Dodotronic Roma (Italy))
Silvia Adrian-Martinez (IGIC-UPV (Spain))
Rosaria Grasso (LNS)
Dr Giuseppa Buscaino (IAMC-CNR Capo Granitola)
Darlene Ketten (Curtin University (AUS) and Woods Hole OI (USA))
Lee Thompson (Sheffield Univ., UK)
The use of acoustic methods for the detection of high energy neutrinos is one of a number of techniques that can be used to record these relativistic fundamental particles. This presentation will briefly justify the interest in high and ultra-high energy neutrinos as well as briefly discuss other techniques currently in use to detect them. The presentation will then turn to the acoustic...
Prof. Sean Danaher (Northumbria University)
This lecture will discuss both the hardware and software needed to acoustically detect neutrinos and will cover topics such as Hydrophone structure, Analogue to digital converters, Fourier Transforms, matched filtering, spectral analysis and the Hilbert Transform for envelope detection. Although the topics covered are in general very mathematical the talk will be very descriptive and have any...
Francesco Simeone (INFN Roma, I)
In recent years the astro-particle community is involved in the realization of experimental apparatuses for the detection of high energy neutrinos, originated in cosmic sources or produced in the interaction of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background. For neutrino energies in the TeV-PeV range, the underwater optical Cherenkov technique is considered as optimal. For higher energies,...
Mr Salvatore Viola (LNS)
The SMO (Submarine Multidisciplinary Observatory) project consists of a 3D array of 14 broad-band (10 Hz - 70 kHz) hydrophones, installed on board the NEMO Phase-II detector, a prototype of a detection unit for an underwater neutrino telescope. Thanks to very low noise acquisition electronics and broadband hydrophones, SMO is suitable for both studies of astrophysical neutrino detection and...
Ms Giuseppina Larosa (LNS)
The KM3NeT-Italia project, leaded by the INFN, is building the first block of the forthcoming KM3NeT underwater neutrino telescope (www.km3net.org). A prototype detection unit has been deployed the 23rd March 2013. It consists of a vertical sequence of 8 horizontal structures called floors, kept vertical by appropriate buoyancy on the top and follows the tower layout. The tower has been...
Ms Sara Rita Pulvirenti (LNS)
NEMO-SN1 is a sea-floor multidisciplinary observatory, managed by INGV and INFN and connected to shore by an electro-optical cable. It is located at a distance of 25 km from the Eastern Sicily Coast, off-shore Catania, at an operative depth of 2100 m. SN1 is equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors that acquire data since June 2012. An array of hydrophones is also installed on...
Paolo Favali (INGV Roma, I)
EMSO (http://www.emso-eu.org) is a large-scale European Research Infrastructure (RI) of the ESFRI roadmap composed of fixed-point, seafloor and water-column observatories with the basic scientific objective of near- and real-time, long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. It is geographically distributed in key...
Prof. Kim Juniper (Ocean Networks Canada, University of Victoria)
Ocean Networks Canada operates major cabled undersea observatories in the northeast Pacific Ocean, and a cabled mini-observatory in the Arctic Ocean. These observatories support a variety of underwater instruments ranging from seismometers to chemical sensors and cameras. Access to all data collected on our networks is open to all researchers and free of charge. After experimenting with...
69. Bioacoustic results in NEMO-SN1 ONDE and way ahead with EMSO, the European Multidisciplinary Submarine Research Infrastructure
Prof. Gianni Pavan (University of Pavia - Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali)
INFN and INGV develop and run deep sea infrastructures and instruments for a wide range of scientific research developed by a network of institutional partners. The marine bioacoustic research began in 2004 with the NEMO-OnDE platform deployed at 2000m depth 25 km off Catania (Sicily) and connected to the INFN-LNS laboratory of Catania by fiber optic cables. Wideband acoustic data have...
Michel Andre (UPC, SP)
The growing scientific and societal concern about the effects of underwater sound on marine ecosystems has been recently recognized through the introduction of several international initiatives aiming at measuring the environmental impact of ocean noise on large spatial and temporal scales. From a regulatory perspective, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive includes noise as one of...
Lars Kindermann (AWI, D)
The Southern Ocean is one of the most diverse soundscapes of earth. The dynamics of the cryosphere i.e. sea ice, glaciers and icebergs create unique acoustic conditions. During polar winter the snow covered sea ice shields the ocean from atmospheric influences, suppresses the creation of waves and resembles an almost perfect acoustic absorber, thus creating one of the quietest environments of...
20. Looking for spaghetti in a haystack: Semiautomatic approaches to detecting marine mammals in highly variable noise environments
Doug Gillespie (St. Andrews Univ., UK)
The wide variety of sounds produced by marine mammals are for the most part well documented. While some of these sounds, such as fin whale moans and the clicks of harbour porpoise and beaked whales are highly stereotyped, others, such as humpback song and dolphin whistles are highly variable both at the individual and at the population level. Even the more stereotyped sounds can become highly...
Alexander von Benda-Beckman (WhaleFM/TNO)
Long term acoustic monitoring, which is required for assessing impact of anthropogenic activities on marine mammals, leads to increasingly large acoustic datasets that need to be classified. Although significant improvements have been made in applying automated methods to categorize marine mammal calls, scientists often still have to rely on human judgment to classify calls into call...
70. Detecting the structural variability of cetacean tonal sounds by automatic detection and classification algorithms
Dr Tzu-Hao Lin (Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University)
In recent years, long-term acoustic recorders have been extensively employed to examine the temporal variation of cetacean occurrences. However, the interpretation of cetacean behavior based on their vocal usage remains difficult. The temporal variation of behaviors can only be detected through the variability of vocal usage. Tonal sounds are believed to play an important role in cetacean...
71. A preliminary investigation on the seismic air gun reverberant field in a shallow water Arctic environment
Prof. Joseph Vignola (The Catholic University of America)
Offshore oil and gas exploration as well as geophysical research activities using seismic airgun arrays are known to generate intense underwater impulses that could impact marine mammals by causing hearing impairment and/or behavioral modification. However, few studies have investigated the resulting multipath propagation and reverberation from the airgun impulses, which could affect long...
73. Spatial prediction and interpolation effect assessment of marine mammal counter calls, ambient and anthropogenic noise
Dr Jonathan Vallarta (Jasco Applied Sciences)
Spatial prediction methods were used to produce contour surface maps in order to document baseline ambient and anthropogenic noise conditions, and to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of marine mammals based on acoustic detections of their vocalizations. Two main groups of interpolation techniques to create contour surface maps are deterministic and geostatistical. These are based...
74. An algorithm to measure the size of sperm whales recorded by INFN deep-sea observatories in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Sicily)
Dr Francesco Caruso (LNS)
The Sperm whale continuously produces short acoustic signals, defined as “clicks”, to recognize the environment, to find food and to facilitate intraspecies communication. Each click has a multi-pulse structure, with a first variable pulse and a series of equally spaced pulses originating from multiple reflections inside the head of the whale. The measurement of the stable Inter Pulse Interval...
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) is considered to be the only mysticete common and constantly present into the Mediterranean Sea, representing a genetically isolated population and being distributed all over the basin. Although the increased number of surveys in recent years confirmed its presence in highly productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea, still very little is known about the...
Walter Zimmer (CRME, I)
Fourier noted in his book on Théorie analytique de la chaleur that while the ultimate causes for the surrounding world are hidden to us, all natural processes follow simple and unchangeable laws that may be discovered through observations. While Fourier was interested in the understanding of a physical phenomenon (heat), it seems appropriate to consider also complex biological processes as a...
Herve Glotin (Toulon Univ., F)
First we present our real-time multiple whale tracking on large or short hydrophones array. Our algorithm is based on the transitivity of the Time Delay of Arrival (TDOA) computed from correlation of each couple of hydrophones [Glotin et al. 2008, 2009, patent USA,EU]. It results a high precision track without false alarm (online demonstrations...
Paul White (Southampton Univ., UK)
The problems associated with detecting, classifying and localising marine mammals using acoustic methods have been widely studied. These represent challenging tasks when applied to individual animals and become even more burdensome when groups are encountered, as is frequently the case in practice. Here we shall consider an aspect of such acoustic processing systems that is the focus of less...
Mauro Gino Taiuti (GE)
ARION "Systems for Coastal Dolphin Conservation in the Ligurian Sea" - LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a Mediterranean cetacean listed as “vulnerable” in IUCN Red List. It is estimated that 200-300 individuals live in the project area. As a coastal species, bottle nose dolphins are the most threatened by habitat degradation and loss. The main threats come...
47. How new technology has revolutionized the study of cetacean bioacoustics and suggestions for new directions and collaborations for the future
Peter Tyack (St. Andrews Univ.)
Our human sense of audition is adapted for hearing in air, so we need to rely upon electronic apparatus to hear well underwater, to localize sounds, and to broadcast them. After modest development in the first 40 years of the twentieth century, WWII brought rapid development of excellent gear for listening, locating, and broadcasting sound underwater. Unfortunately for civilians interested in...
Hong Young Yan (Taiwan)
Sound travels efficiently underwater, therefore, it could impact large areas of water body where fish and marine mammals live. Underwater anthropogenic sounds are ubiquitous due to extensive human activities into the aquatic environments. Many studies have documented deleterious effects of underwater noise on fishes and mammals which include: temporary or permanent hearing threshold shift,...
Tiago Marques (St. Andrews Univ., UK)
The estimation of density (and abundance) of cetaceans is a key step towards their management and conservation. Currently, the most widely used methods for obtaining density estimates are distance sampling or capture-recapture methods, usually involving visual detections and/or marking (even if only conceptual, e.g. photo ID). However, many cetacean species are difficult to sight, and cannot...
27. The Sea Finds Its Voice: Changes in the Scientific Understanding of Sound and Marine Life from 1993 to 2013.
Bob Gisiner (US Navy)
Over the past twenty years societal concern about the effects of manmade underwater sound on marine life has grown. The increased concern has been reflected in increased funding for scientific research. Numerous studies of the hearing and behavior of marine life, especially studies of marine mammals, have been conducted to determine the risks to marine life from sound. Of particular note are...
Ms Silvia Adrián Martínez (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia)
Underwater neutrino telescopes require in situ acoustic calibration in order to assure the optimal performance of sensors dedicated for the acoustic detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos. Moreover, sensor calibration is necessary to evaluate the acoustic detection and the efficiency of the entire detection. A first prototype of a compact acoustic array able to mimic the acoustic neutrino...
Mr Paul Barker (Loughborough University)
In light of recent concerns about the effects of both acute and chronic noise exposure on the marine environment, it is desirable to implement long-term, continuous monitoring of underwater noise levels in key locations. This monitoring may be used to provide impact assessment for specific anthropogenic noise sources as well as to provide insights into long-term trends in underwater noise...
Dr Carmelo Pellegrino (INFN-LNS)
The SMO team has successfully deployed two deep-sea acoustic antennas, permanently connected to shore by means of electro-optical cables. Both observatories are real-time operating since their deployment. The first one is hosted aboard the NEMO-SN1 multiparameter observatory (managed by INGV and INFN) installed at the INFN-LNS "Catania Test Site" located ~25km off the Catania harbour at a...
36. Acoustically derived growth rates of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) around Ischia and Ventotene Islands (Italy): preliminary results
Daniela Silvia Pace (University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Department of Environmental Biology - Italy and Oceanomare Delphis Onlus, Rome - Italy)
Measuring the size of individuals and quantifying their growth are fundamental to answering many ecological questions. Acoustic methods for estimate the size of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) by measuring the inter-pulse interval (IPI) of their clicks have been applied in some different studies; however, very few data on the growth rate of sperm whale individuals in the...
Mr Yann Doh (LSIS/DYNI)
In the last 10 years, the knowledge of marine mammals behaviour, their trajectory and density estimation has been enhanced by using passive acoustics techniques. Whale detection and precise localization is often achieved by expensive and heavy hardware such as hydrophone arrays and bottom mounted hydrophones. However, the frequent use of light and single hydrophone devices, which are quick to...
Dr Giuseppa Buscaino (IAMC-CNR Capo Granitola)
In this study we describe the impulsive signals from bottlenose dolphin of the Central Mediterranean sea. Data were collected during 2011 and 2012 year during 27 survey in the Sicilian Channel (ranged from 1 to 25 nautical miles from the coast, included Lampedusa island) in which were sighted 144 specimens. It was used a digital acquisition system that allow to obtain calibrated signals in the...
Dr Giuseppa Buscaino (IAMC-CNR Capo Granitola)
Rosaria Grasso (LNS)
In recent years the Italian legislation is conforming itself to protect marine ecosystems which requires the study and the subsequent monitoring of the physical and chemical characteristics of the underwater environment that is affected and changed by the increasing human activities. The Submarine Multidisciplinary Observatory (SMO) is an underwater acoustic antenna installed onboard the...
Rosaria Grasso (LNS)
Dr Ivano Pelicella (Dodotronic di Ivano Pelicella)
Multichannel high speed recording systems had always required an ADC acquisition card, a personal computer, a dedicated software, a power supply and often additional external filters and preamplifiers. This implied huge and expensive instrumentation not well suited for field work. WaveShark comes from a strong request to have a compact, lightweight and autonomous high speed multichannel...
57. What does a small, shy cetacean which vocalises 6 times above a human's hearing range do underwater? Challenges in localising harbour porpoises.
Mr Jamie Macaulay (SMRU)
Using passive acoustics to track the movements of animals underwater is well established in cetacean research. However as animals get smaller, their vocalisations tend to get higher in frequency and less dispersed hydrophone arrays are required in order to determine a location. As arrays get smaller, errors in the estimated position of hydrophones and sound speed become much greater in...