EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB user workshop

Zoom meeting
Marcello Coreno (LNF) , Luca Giannessi Giannessi (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) , Stefano Lupi (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) , Augusto Marcelli (LNF) , Francesco Stellato (ROMA2) , Fabio Villa (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)

The EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB User Workshop 2021 will take place online over two full days on October 14th and 15th, 2021.

EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB is the project of a FEL light source user facility at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in the EuPRAXIA (European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence in Applications) framework: the European project for a next generation plasma accelerator, recently included in the ESFRI 2021 Roadmap Update. This game-changing facility will be able to produce versatile beams for a range of applications at lower costs and smaller footprint than what can be achieved with more conventional radio-frequency accelerators.

The future of this facility at LNF is currently in the process of definition. The preparation of a technical design report is in progress.

The goal of this workshop is to present the target parameters of the EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB FELs, lasers and X-ray sources to ensure the best user performances and the complementarity of this unique photon factory in the European scenario.

The workshop is divided in four sections, each one targeting the radiation property ranges, which may be covered by the facility:

  • 400-100 eV SASE FEL beamline
  • 7-30 eV SEEDED FEL beamline.
  • Mid Infrared-Terahertz beamline.
  • High intensity solid state laser beams & alternative X-ray sources.

These photon sources could be combined with HHG sources for multidimensional spectroscopy investigations.

Please register to receive the zoom link to join
  • Akinori Irizawa
  • Alberto Petralia
  • Alberto Simoncig
  • Alessandro Cianchi
  • Alessandro Drago
  • Alessandro Gallo
  • Andrea Di Cicco
  • Andrea Doria
  • Andrea Ghigo
  • Andrea Perucchi
  • Andrea Renato Rossi
  • Andrea Selce
  • Angelo Biagioni
  • Anna Giribono
  • Annalisa D'Arco
  • Antonella Balerna
  • antonella cartoni
  • Antonio Falone
  • Bruno Diviacco
  • Bruno Spataro
  • Can Koral
  • Carlo Callegari
  • Carlo Mariani
  • Cristina Vaccarezza
  • Daniele Catone
  • Daniele Trucchi
  • Dario Proietti
  • David Garzella
  • Davide Bleiner
  • Donato Pellegrini
  • Emanuele Di Palma
  • Emiliano De Santis
  • Enrica Chiadroni
  • Enrico Allaria
  • Enrico Di Pasquale
  • Enrico Perfetto
  • Eugenio Gaspari
  • Fabio Cardelli
  • Fabio Villa
  • Fara Cioeta
  • Federico Boscherini
  • Federico Chiarelli
  • Federico Nguyen
  • Felice Dipace
  • Florin Catalin Sirghi
  • Francesca Bonfigli
  • Francesco De Angelis
  • Francesco Fransesini
  • Francesco Stellato
  • Gabor Kurdi
  • Gemma Costa
  • Giacomo Giannetti
  • Giada Petringa
  • Gian Piero Gallerano
  • Gianluca Stefanucci
  • Giovanni Batignani
  • Giuseppe Sansone
  • Giuseppe Torrisi
  • Illya Drebot
  • Ivaylo Nikolov
  • J. Michael Klopf
  • Jacopo Stefano Pelli Cresi
  • James Rosenzweig
  • Javad Rezvani
  • Johannes Schmidt
  • Kalliopi Mavridou
  • Katalin Varjú
  • Kevin Prince
  • Laura Badano
  • Leonardo Viti
  • Leonida Antonio Gizzi
  • Lorenzo Avaldi
  • Lorenzo Mosesso
  • Luca Camilli
  • Luca Giannessi
  • Luca Longetti
  • Luca Petaccia
  • Luca Poletto
  • Luca Tomarchio
  • Lucia Sabbatini
  • Lucilla Pronti
  • Luigi Faillace
  • Luisa Spallino
  • Maddalena Pedio
  • Majed Chergui
  • Marcel Ruijter
  • Marcello Coreno
  • Marcello Rossetti Conti
  • Marco Alessandroni
  • Marco Angelucci
  • Marco Garattini
  • Marco Lonza
  • Marco Miliucci
  • marco moretti
  • Marco Zangrando
  • Maria Pia Anania
  • Mariangela Cestelli Guidi
  • mariano carpanese
  • Markus Guehr
  • Martina Angela
  • Martina Romani
  • Massimiliano Gualtiero Iungo
  • Massimo Ferrario
  • Massimo Petrarca
  • Mattea Carmen Castrovilli
  • Matteo Mitrano
  • Matteo Pancaldi
  • Maurizio Benfatto
  • Mauro Satta
  • Max van der Schans
  • Michele Opromolla
  • Michele Zacchigna
  • Miltcho Danailov
  • Nicola Zema
  • Nitish Pal
  • Oksana Plekan
  • Oliviero Cannelli
  • Paola Bolognesi
  • Paola Di Pietro
  • paolo cinquegrana
  • Pavel Evtushenko
  • Ralph Assmann
  • Ralph Assmann
  • Rebecca Ingle
  • Roberto Flammini
  • Sahar Arjmand
  • Salvatore Macis
  • Sanae Samsam
  • Sanae Samsam
  • simone de panfilis
  • Simone Spampinati
  • Stefano Lupi
  • Stefano Orlando
  • Stefano Romeo
  • stefano stranges
  • Stephan Winnerl
  • Sudipta Mondal
  • Susanna Piccirillo
  • Tullio Scopigno
  • Velia Minicozzi
  • Vineet Gupta
  • vittoria petrillo
  • Weiqing Zhang
  • Xueming Yang
  • Zeinab Ebrahimpour
  • Zhentang Zhao
  • Thursday, October 14
    • EuPRAXIA and FELs in Europe
      Convener: Alessandro Gallo (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 1
        Institutional greetings
        Speakers: Alessandro Gallo (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) , Ralph Assmann (DESY)
      • 2
        EuPRAXIA general presentation
        Speaker: Massimo Ferrario (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 3
        Overview of FELs in Europe: status and perspectives
        Speaker: Enrico Allaria (Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste)
    • AQUA
      • 4
        AQUA overview
        Speakers: Francesco Stellato (Physics Dept. University of Rome Tor Vergata & INFN) , Fabio Villa (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 5
        Development on coherent diffraction based imaging techniques at FERMI seeded-FEL

        Free Electron Lasers (FELs) offer unprecedented opportunity for exploiting ultrafast dynamics with chemical sensitivity. Using appropriate seeding methods combined with pulse tunability, multiple polarization and multi- single or two color pulse schemes have enabled studies of dynamical responses in complex systems, by assessing how specific excitations develop and/or propagate among different sites.
        Another great advantage of seeded-FELs, as FERMI@Elettra, is that they have also opened the route to X-ray coherent non-linear experiments for exploiting, among other, electronic correlations and charge transfer between different atomic constituents in the sample.
        This presentation will overview different class of experiments performed at the DiProI end-station [1] taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the FERMI seeded-FEL [2]. Particular emphasis will be placed on novel imaging schemes based on wave-front coherence used to study e.g. magnetic dynamics after optical excitation at different absorptions edges, taking advantage of two-colors emission of FERMI FELs both in real space by means of time resolved holography [3] or using Fresnel zone plate to stretch the incoming X-ray pulse keeping an angular encoding of the arrival time [4]. Finally, the possibility to extend the current coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) techniques to 3 or 4 dimension using stereographic vision will be discussed in the last part of the presentation.

        Fig. 1 Sequence of two colors time resolved holographic images taken simultaneously at the Co and Fe edges on a (Co/Pt)ML / TbFe bi-layer structure. The sequence shows that, 0.2 ps after the optical excitation Co-based top-layer is demagnetized, while Fe in the below TbFe magnetic structure takes more time to be excited (0.5 ps) on longer time scale (t>1ps) the maze domain structure on the sample surface is recovered.

        [1] F. Capotondi, et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 051301 (2013), F. Capotondi, et al. J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 22, 544-552 (2015).
        [2] E. Allaria, et al. Nature Photonics 6, 699-704 (2012), E. Allaria, et al. Nature Photonics 7, 913–918 (2013).
        [3] C. Von Korff Schmising, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 - 21, 217203 (2014), Willems F. et al. Structural Dynamics, 4, 014301 (2017).
        [4] E. Jal et al. Physical Review B, 99 - 14, 144305 (2019). B. Rosener et al. Structural Dynamics, 7 - 5, 054302 (2020)

        Speaker: Flavio Capotondi (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste)
      • 6
        Controlling protein orientation using strong electric fields: perspectives for single particle imaging

        Single particle imaging is a set of emerging techniques that utilize ultrashort and ultraintense X-ray pulses to generate diffraction from single isolated particles in the gas phase to determine their structures. One of the largest difficulties in realizing this goal is the unknown orientation of the individual sample molecules at the time of exposure. The orientation recovery process requires computationally demanding algorithms that in some cases are unable to find the correct solution, making structure determination impossible in those cases. Preorientation of the molecules using external electric fields has been identified as a possible solution to this problem.
        Using molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a range of electric field strengths where proteins become oriented without losing their structure. Moreover, for a number of experimentally relevant cases, we show that structure determination is possible only when orientation information is included in the orientation-recovery process. We conclude that non-destructive field orientation of intact proteins is feasible and that it enables a range of new structural investigations with single particle imaging.

        Speaker: Emiliano De Santis (Physics + Chemistry BMC Dept. - Uppsala University)
      • 11:15 AM
      • 7
        Investigations of molecular photoenergy conversion using ultrashort x-ray pulses

        The conversion of light energy into other energy forms in molecules is the result of a concerted and ultrafast motion of electrons and nuclei, often under breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This talk is about ultrafast experiments aimed at resolving light induced ultrafast molecular dynamics with x-ray probe pulses using free electron lasers.
        The molecules in the center of this talk are nucleobases, which encode genetic information in life. Although possessing really high UV absorption cross-sections, damaging events by UV absorption are relatively rare. The ultrafast transfer of electronic energy into harmless vibrational energy plays an important role as internal photoprotection mechanism. We present experiments probing the very first steps of this process by femtosecond resonant x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. We deduce a less than 100 fs ππ → nπ transition, which plays a crucial role in the photoprotection of this nucleobase [1].
        Thiolated nucleobases show an efficient and ultrafast relaxation into long-lived triplet states, contrasting with the ultrafast relaxation to the ground states observed in canonical nucleobases. This gives rise to interesting applications as photoinduced-cross linkers as well as problems related to its current use of thionucleobases as medication. We investigate the dynamics of 2-thiouracil via x-ray probing at the sulfur L-edge using the new URSA-PQ instrument for gas-phase spectroscopy at FLASH [2]. We find a direct connection between the charge moving within the molecule and the binding energy shifts observed in the photoelectron spectrum. This manifests itself into coherently modulated signals due to oscillating electronic population.

        [1] Probing ultrafast ππ/nπ internal conversion in organic chromophores via K-edge resonant absorption, T. J. A. Wolf, R. H. Myhre, J. P. Cryan, S. Coriani, R. J. Squibb, A. Battistoni, N. Berrah, C. Bostedt, P. Bucksbaum, G. Coslovich, R. Feifel, K. J. Gaffney, J. Grilj, T. J. Martinez, S. Miyabe, S. P. Moeller, M. Mucke, A. Natan, R. Obaid, T. Osipov, O. Plekan, S. Wang, H. Koch and M. Gühr
        Nature Communications 8, 29 (2017)

        [2] Following UV-induced electronic dynamics of thiouracil by ultrafast x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, D. Mayer, F. Lever, D. Picconi, J. Metje, S. Alisauskas, F. Calegari, S. Düsterer, C. Ehlert, R. Feifel, M. Niebuhr, B. Manschwetus, M. Kuhlmann, T. Mazza, M.S. Robinson, R.J. Squibb, A. Trabattoni, M. Wallner, P. Saalfrank, T. J. A. Wolf, M. Gühr (2021)

        Speaker: Markus Guehr (Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam)
      • 8
        Soft x-ray absorption and pump-probe experiments of transient states using FEL sources

        Dynamics of phase transitions has been a long interest in the material science community, while recent studies on the transient states of the nanomaterials have opened a new window into the new whelm of the topological properties. It is now known that the phase transitions in low-dimensional materials are significantly modified by the effect of the shape and size [1]. This effect would have a significant practical impact if observed in extremely small organic and inorganic elements super-positioned within a continuous matrix such as silicon quantum dots in silicon oxide matrix or the metal nanoparticle functionalized within the organic carbon based matrices. However, studying the dynamics of phase transitions and various transient states in these materials is an extremely difficult task which may be accomplished by advanced photon sources, like the new high-brightness of new free electron lasers (FELs).
        A promising technique for future soft x-ray experiments is certainly the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which is able to provide information about the structural and electronic properties. One of the main advantages of performing XAS experiments at FEL facilities like the prospected EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB is the number of photons per pulse, which may exceed 1012 photons/pulse, thus being still significantly higher than that currently achievable at HGG sources. The high intensity of the FEL pulses allows us to acquire data with a good signal-to-noise ratio from single-shots measurements. In this context, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) can be used as a tool to directly observe the local structure of the specimen with typical sub-picosecond time resolution. In particular, either by tuning the undulators to the appropriate energy, or exploiting the natural FEL bandwidth generated in SASE mode, the experiments performed at EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB can allow measurements of the informative, low-energy portion of the XAS spectrum, the so-called XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy) region. Quantitative analysis tools of XANES data are nowadays available including those based on first principles calculations and can provide detailed information on the evolution of the local structure.
        Therefore, FEL-XAS measurements will become a powerful tool to provide unique information on the local geometry (as well as on electron density and spin states) around selected atomic species. Soft x-rays absorption studies carried out at the EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB include the K edge of elements such as C, N and O, and the L edge of 3d transition metals. Examples of pioneering soft L-edge FEL-XAS transmission experiments include measurements of Al, Ge and Ti thin films for variable fluence (see, for example, our previous works carried out at Fermi@Elettra [2–4] ). In those experiments, ultrafast electron heating pumping matter at extremely high temperatures, as well as saturable absorption effects were observed. FEL experiments were found to be extremely useful to explore highly uniform warm dense matter (WDM) conditions, a regime exceedingly difficult to reach in present laboratory studies, but relevant to various fields, including high-pressure and planetary science, astrophysics, and plasma production. Various FEL-based ultrafast techniques can be used to probe WDM properties at electron temperatures in the 1–10 eV range and beyond.
        The previous studies naturally call for further challenging experiments at the EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB FEL as well as for parallel developments of suitable interpretation schemes for modelling and understanding the X-ray absorption cross section under high-fluence conditions (see [5,6] and refs. therein).

        [1] SJ Rezvani, Y Mijiti, A Di Cicco Applied Physics Letters 119 (5), 053101 (2021).
        [2] Andrea Di Cicco, Francesco D'Amico, Goran Zgrablic, Emiliano Principi, Roberto Gunnella, Filippo Bencivenga, Cristian Svetina, Claudio Masciovecchio, Fulvio Parmigiani, Adriano Filipponi,`Probing phase transitions under extreme conditions by ultrafast techniques: Advances at the Fermi@Elettra free-electron-laser facility', Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 357, 2641 (2011)
        [3] Andrea Di Cicco, Keisuke Hatada, Erika Giangrisostomi, Roberto Gunnella, Filippo Bencivenga, Emiliano Principi, Claudio Masciovecchio, Adriano Filipponi, Interplay of electron heating and saturable absorption in ultrafast extreme ultraviolet transmission of condensed matter, Physical Review B rapid comm. 90, 220303 (2014)
        [4] E Principi, E Giangrisostomi, R Cucini, F Bencivenga, A Battistoni, A Gessini, R Mincigrucci, M Saito, S Di Fonzo, F D'Amico, A Di Cicco, R Gunnella, A Filipponi, A Giglia, S Nannarone, C Masciovecchio, Free electron laser-driven ultrafast rearrangement of the electronic structure in Ti, Structural Dynamics 3, 023604 (2016)
        [5] Keisuke Hatada and Andrea Di Cicco, Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics and Saturable Absorption Induced by Free Electron Laser Radiation, Applied Sciences 7, 814 (2017)
        [6] Jacopo Stefano Pelli Cresi, Emiliano Principi, Eleonora Spurio, Daniele Catone, Patrick O’Keeffe, Stefano Turchini, Stefania Benedetti, Avinash Vikatakavi, Sergio D’Addato, Riccardo Mincigrucci, Nano Lett. 2021, 21, 4, 1729–1734.

        Authors: Andrea Di Cicco , Roberto Gunnella, S. Javad Rezvani, Angela Trapananti

        Speaker: Seyed Javad Rezvani (Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy)
      • 9
        Ultrafast dynamics of molecular systems with ultrashort optical and X-ray pulses
        Speaker: Majed Chergui (Laboratory of Ultrafast Spectroscopy (LSU) and Lausanne Centre for Ultrafast Science (LACUS), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 10
        Dynamical control of electronic interactions in quantum materials
        Speaker: Matteo Mitrano (Department of Physics, Harvard University)
    • 1:05 PM
      Lunch break
    • ARIA
      Conveners: Luca Giannessi (ENEA & ST) , Marcello Coreno (CNR-ISM and INFN)
      • 11
        ARIA overview
        Speakers: Marcello Coreno (CNR-ISM and INFN) , Michele Opromolla (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 12
        Dalian Coherent Light Source and Its Applications in Molecular Sciences

        In this presentation, we will discuss the development of Dalian VUV free electron laser facility, which covers the VUV wavelength range of 50-150 nm. In addition, new applications of this facility in molecular sciences, such as molecular VUV photodissociation, neutral cluster spectroscopy, surface catalysis and biomolecule VUV-PD mass spectrometry, will be presented. Future plans for a new generation of VUV FEL light source will also be discussed.

        Key words:vacuum ultraviolet, free electron laser, photodissociation, molecular science

        [1] Z. J. Luo et al., Sci. Adv. 7, eabg7775(2021)
        [2] Y. Chang et al., Nat. Commun. 12, 2476(2021).
        [3] Y. Zhao et al., Nat. Commun. 12, 4459(2021).
        [4] Y. Chang et al., Nat. Commun. 2019, 10, 1025(2019).
        [5] B. Zhang, et al., PNAS, 117 15423 (2020)

        Speaker: Xueming Yang (Dalian Coherent Light Source, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS and College of Science, Southern University of Science and Technology )
      • 13
        Insights in the fragmentation of biomolecules by PEPICO and time-resolved experiments

        The knowledge of the aminoacids and peptide structure and reactivity is crucial to understand the role of transient species involved in protein radical catalysis as well as the effects of oxidative damage in proteins. To the purpose the combination of “static” techniques like the spectroscopic ones performed with synchrotron radiation and “time-resolved” ones, like ultrafast pump-probe experiments, is needed. In this work we show how this combination can provide deep insights in glycine fragmentation. Glycine (NH2CH2COOH) is the simplest amino acid, with a single hydrogen atom as side chain attached to the α-carbon and it is often used as a prototype for several physical processes occurring in more complex amino acids.
        Photoelectron-photoion coincidence, PEPICO, experiments have been used to characterize the fate of the glycine cation following its interaction with UV photons and an ultrafast pump-probe experiment has been done to investigate the intra-molecular H migration. The PEPICO experiments have been performed at the GAPH beamline at Elettra (Trieste, Italy), while the ultrafast XUV pump-NIR probe experiments have been done at the Department of Physics, Politecnico Milano (Milan, Italy).
        In Fig. 1 (left panel) [1] the photoelectron spectrum and the PEPICO yields of the two main fragments, H2NCH2+ (m/z 30) and COOH+ (m/z 45), are shown. Glycine fragments at its ionization threshold, with the charge localized on the H2NCH2+ moiety, due to ionization of the N lone pair of the HOMO. The formation of the complementary cation COOH+ needs 3 eV more. The flexibility with respect to rotation about the C-C, C-N and C-O bonds makes glycine existing in the gas phase in several conformers. Ionization can lead to stabilization of some conformations, rearrangements and, last but not the least, H migration between the two moieties. The sensitivity of PEPICO to pin point the latter process, despite its very low intensity, is shown in Fig. 1, where the C(OH)2+ ion (m/z 46), due to H migration to form the diol conformer, is observed in a well-defined binding energy range. The dynamics of the H migration has been investigated by measuring the yields of m/z 45 and 46 fragments versus the delay between a XUV pump and a NIR probe pulse [2]. The fits to the ion yields (see Fig.1 right panel) resulted in a decay time τ_decay= 49.5 ± 2.7 fs and a rise time τ_rise= 47.9 ±1.7 fs, respectively.

        Images are in the material section of the talk.

        Work partially supported by the PRIN project 20173B72NB “Predicting and controlling the fate of biomolecules driven by extreme-ultraviolet radiation"

        [1] Jacopo Chiarinelli et al., Insights in the fragmentation of glycine by PEPICO experiments, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 22841 (2018).
        [2] Mattea C. Castrovilli et al., Ultrafast hydrogen migration in photoionized glycine, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9, 6012 (2018).

        Speaker: Lorenzo Avaldi (CNR-Istituto di Struttura della Materia)
      • 14
        Recent experiments at the LDM beamline of FERMI, with EUV radiation from FEL-1: highlights and prospects

        Free-Electron-Lasers (FELs) in the EUV and XUV photon energy range have greatly expanded the feasibility range of experiments at the crossroad between tabletop lasers and synchrotrons. The FERMI facility in Trieste (Italy) is unique in the FELs landscape because it has been designed as a seeded source, resulting in superior performances in terms of control and reproducibility of its light pulses [1]. Of particular interest for spectroscopic applications are its broad tunability, wavelength purity (approaching the Fourier-transform limit, with sub-linewidth stability), short pulse duration and timing jitter. Transverse and temporal coherence are those characteristic of a true laser, and have been exploited in a series of pioneering experiments [2]. As in laboratory High Harmonic Generation, harmonics are mutually coherent, but in contrast, they are produced with much higher pulse energy.
        The Low Density Matter Beamline (LDM, [3]) at FERMI, which caters to the atomic-, molecular-, and cluster-science community, has fully exploited these unique characteristics to perform precision nonlinear spectroscopy [4], explore the behavior of atoms [5] molecules [6] and clusters [7] under intense fields, and study the dynamics of photoexcited molecules [8].

        The LDM beamline has also represented a versatile instrument to characterize the properties of FERMI and explore new modes of operation [9], prompting the full exploitation and control of its longitudinal coherence for breakthrough experiments [2].

        I will present the research opportunities offered by LDM at FERMI in the above fields, along with some recent results, and future perspectives.

        Acknowledgements: The results presented here originated from the joint effort of many international laboratories and a large number of researchers, whose work is gratefully acknowledged.

        [1] E. Allaria et al., Nat. Photon. 6 (2012) 699–704; E. Allaria et al., Nat. Photon. 7 (2013) 913–918.
        [2] K. C. Prince et al., Nat. Photon. 10 176 (2016); D. Iablonskyi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 073203 (2017); M. Di Fraia et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123 213904 (2019); A. Wituscheck et al., Nat. Commun. 11 883 (2020); D. You et al., Phys. Rev. X 10 031070 (2020); P. K. Maroju et al., Nature 578 386 (2020); N. S. Mirian et al., Nat. Photon. 15 523 (2021).
        [3] V. Lyamayev et al., J. Phys. B 46, 164007 (2013); C. Svetina et al., J Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 538 (2015).
        [4] M. Žitnik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 193201 (2014); T. Takanashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 033202 (2017).
        [5] M. Ilchen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 013002 (2017); M. Ilchen et al., Nat. Commun. 9, 4659 (2018); P. A. Carpeggiani et al., Nat. Phys. 15, 170 (2019); M. D. Kiselev et al., J. Phys. B 53, 244006 (2020).
        [6] F Holzmeier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 103002 (2018)
        [7] Y. Ovcharenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 073401 (2014); B. Langbehn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 255301 (2018); M. Mudrich et al., Nat. Commun. 11, 112 (2020); A C LaForge et al., Phys. Rev. X 11, 021011 (2021); R. Michiels et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 093201 (2021); J. D. Asmussen Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 23, 15138 (2021).
        [8] R. . Squibb et al., Nat. Commun. 9, 63 (2018); S. Pathak et al., Nat. Chem., 12, 795 (2020).
        [9] E. Allaria et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 041040 (2014); D. Gauthier et al., Nature Communications 7, 13688 (2016).

        Speaker: Carlo Callegari (Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste)
      • 4:00 PM
        Coffee Break
      • 15
        Accurate gas phase ion chemistry for reliable complex models

        Ionic processes in the gas phase have a fundamental and applicative relevance in several fields of chemistry and physics, e.g. astrochemistry and atmospheric science(1), biophysics(2), activation and/or functionalization of simple starting materials(3). The interest spans from the study of the photofragmentation of ions and charged clusters to the formation of charged species, molecules and radicals via chemical reactions. Thus, much effort has been devoted to study ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase, considered as a model laboratory for the chemistry of terrestrial and planetary atmosphere, and for the molecular synthesis in the interstellar space(4). These reactions may play a role in the chemical networks taken into account by the complex non-linear models of both atmospheric climate and the ISM evolution. Despite the fundamental role of neutrals species in several process, the formation of neutral species from ion-molecule reactions is also important, because these reactions may represent more efficient route to neutrals than neutral-neutral reactions, either destroying or producing neutrals by faster reactions.

        In the presentation a brief overview of the atmospheric challenges, the role of laboratories studies and the importance of ions in atmospheric processes will be highlighted. As example, the results on SO2+ chemistry(5), obtained at the synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, will be briefly presented and discussed. The experimental limits of these types of studies and the future perspectives based on FEL facility will be introduced.

        1 M. Larsson et al. Rep. Prog. Phys. 2012, 75, 066901(75pp).
        2 P. Markush et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016, 18, 16721-16729.
        3 R. H. Crabtree Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 987-1007
        4 W. D. Geppert et al. Chem. Rev. 2013, 113, 8872−8905
        5 a) A. Cartoni et al. Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 6772-6780; b) M. Satta et al. ChemPhysChem 2020, 21, 1146-1156.

        Speaker: A. Cartoni (Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome)
      • 16
        Tabletop and High-End Beamlines: Friends or Foes?

        The impressive brightness progress of short wavelength light sources, of about 30 orders of magnitude since the early days of W.C. Röntgen, has been characterized by the drastic upscaling of the footprint and engineering complexity. Large-scale facilities are the high-end short-wavelength sources, whose operation requires a large technical and scientific skill. These are accessed on a user beamtime mode.

        In parallel, a few groups still have worked on the improvement of compact "tabletop" sources. Essentially two tabletop architectures have established, based on either a parametric or non-parametric process. While the two concepts are complementary, their combination offers a large range of capabilities on a tabletop. As of now, the operation is concentrated in the VUV or soft X-rays. Therefore, the fair comparison is with high-end beamlines such as FLASH2@DESY or future ARIA@Sparc (2029) offering user access to this interesting range of radiation.

        Originally, discovered by Viktor Schumann a couple of years before Röntgen's milestone report on X-rays, the "Schumann range" remained underexploited due to the superb capabilities of X-rays. Nevertheless, quite unique experiments in chemistry, materials and so forth are possible in this spectral range. Still the lack of 24/7 access was blamed as a main cause to its stagnation. It will be however shown that the real bottleneck factor in the popularity of high-end sources is not the discontinuous access. Recently, a VUV revival is ongoing in (photo)chemistry, which sharpened an underlying competition between high-end beamlines and tabletop counterparts. A bird's eye view is presented to highlight complementarities as well as contrapositions. We will conclude with a proposal for the strengthening of the VUV community, indicating the specifications for an open discussion with the audience.

        Speaker: Davide Bleiner (Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)
      • 17
        ARIA+AQUA Round Table

        The round table will be opened by Pierluigi Campana talk.

  • Friday, October 15
    • AQUA
      • 18
        Time-resolved non-linear spectroscopy at FEL sources
        Speaker: Giovanni Batignani (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma “La Sapienza”)
      • 19
        Dynamics of free-standing «graphane»
        Speaker: Carlo Mariani (Department of Physics, Sapienza University)
    • 9:50 AM
      Coffee break
    • TERA (THz/IR scientific case)
      Convener: Stefano Lupi (Sapienza University and INFN)
      • 20
        Speaker: Stefano Lupi (Department of Physics Sapienza University of Rome and INFN-LNF)
      • 21
        Use of THz FEL for material science

        In a wide range of electromagnetic wave, THz and/or FIR region has both two different aspects such as high-frequency radio waves and low-energy light. From the viewpoint of radio waves, terahertz waves are composed of alternating electromagnetic fields with a period of about ps. Meanwhile, FIR light is a photon comparable to the energy scales of Drude response of free carriers in metals, phonon absorption in crystals, and bonding vibrational and/or rotational motions in molecules. Therefore, next-generation radiation light sources in THz/FIR region with high brilliance and coherence, including few-cycle pulsed light and FEL, can be expected not only as probe light sources but also as pump light sources that cause unique interactions with various materials.

        ISIR THz FEL generates monochromatic pulsed light with a wavelength from 30 to 150 μm which corresponds to a photon energy of about 8to 40 meV. The peak power of 20 ps width micro-pulse reaches 4MW. The maximum electric field can be estimated as ~7MV/cm which is comparable to the breakdown field of atmosphere.
        By using THz FEL, unique excitation phenomena peculiar to THz/FIR lasers, which are different from NIR fs lasers and UV, x-ray, are observed in various materials ranging from inorganic solids to biological constituents[1-3].

        [1] A. Irizawa, S. Suga, T. Nagashima, A. Higashiya, M. Hashida, S. Sakabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 251602 (2017).
        [2] T. Kawasaki, K. Tsukiyama, A. Irizawa, Sci. Rep. 9(1) 1-8 (2019).
        [3] S. Macis, L. Tomarchio, S. Tofani, S.J. Rezvani, L. Faillace, S. Lupi, A. Irizawa, A. Marcelli, Condens. Matter 5(1) 16-1-10 (2020).

        Speaker: Akinori Irizawa (ISIR, Osaka University)
      • 22
        THz Spectroscopy and Imaging

        In this talk, I will give an overview of some of the THz activities carried on in two main laboratories in Sapienza University and respectively located at the SBAI and Physics departments. Together the laboratories present state-of-the-art “compact” THz technology working both in the frequency and time domain. In the frequency domain a high-resolution coherent detection spectrometer exploiting photo antennas as infrared-to-THz transducer can be used as well as QCL laser system. In the time domain different set-up can be used to generate THz. Low energy THz pulses can be produced by photo antennas or laser induced air-plasma while higher energy pulses can be supplied by two main techniques: optical rectification and two-color plasma. Moreover, the laboratory is equipped also with a room-temperature 2D bolometer camera for imaging applications.
        In this talk I will first describe the THz sources and set-up, and then I will focus on two main research fields: characterization and detection of substances of national interest and high intensity THz generation and manipulation for application as accelerator technology and spectroscopy. I will finish with some perspective.

        Speaker: Massimo Petrarca (University of Roma "La Sapienza")
      • 11:15 AM
        Coffee break
      • 23
        Coulomb scattering dynamics in graphene investiugated by polarization sensitive pump-probe spectroscopy

        We investigate the carrier dynamics in graphene utilizing the free-electron laser FELBE as a source of low-energy photons. Polarization resolved pump-probe experiments with linearly polarized radiation allow us to disentangle the role of electron-electron scattering and scattering of electrons with optical phonons. Applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the graphene layers results in a non-equidistant Landau ladder. Pump-probe experiments with circularly polarized radiation can address individual transitions. We find evidence for strong Auger scattering and discuss the implication for potential graphene-based Landau-level lasers.

        Speaker: Stephan Winnerl (Spectroscopy Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Germany)
      • 24
        TERA Round Table
    • 12:35 PM
      Lunch break
    • Other radiation sources
      Convener: David Garzella (CEA/IRAMIS/LIDYL)
      • 25
        EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB laser system
        Speaker: Maria Pia Anania (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 26
        Betatron radiation from a LWFA
        Speaker: Mario Galletti (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 27
        Laser for seeding FELs
        Speaker: M. Danailov (Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste)
      • 28
        Molecular Photochemistry with High Energy Photons

        Combining short pulse durations with high energy photons provides a unique experimental opportunity to explore fully photoinduced processes in molecular systems. High temporal resolutions allow us to explore ultrafast relaxation and interactions between high-lying electronic states. For photoionisation studies, being able to ionise molecules along the full reaction coordinate, even following relaxation to the ground state means we can capture the complete picture of a photochemical reaction. Alternatively, even higher energy photons can be used to provide a more localised picture of the chemical dynamics through core and inner valence ionisation processes. I will give several examples of such studies, looking at molecules such as pyrazine and a substituted ethylene, to illustrate the opportunities for high harmonic generation (HHG) in photochemical studies.

        Speaker: Rebecca Ingle (University College London)
      • 3:40 PM
        Coffee Break
      • 29
        The ELI-ALPS activities with high intensity lasers
        Speaker: Giuseppe Sansone (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)
      • 30
        High Energy High Power
        Speaker: Dr Leonida Antonio Gizzi (CNR - INO, and INFN - Sez. di Pisa)

        Advanced high energy, high power lasers are fundamental for carrying out leading edge science at advanced light sources. These demanding needs are driving development of high peak power lasers, traditionally operating in a "single shot" or at a very low repetition rate, towards the high average power regime. These circumstances are calling for a dramatic change in laser technologies, featuring novel, efficient laser pumping schemes and devices, new materials and disruptive approaches.  EuPRAXIA is a unique example of a "convergence" between laser, plasma and accelerator communities, gathering natively, in a single site, high average, high peak power lasers, high energy electron beams and an X-ray free-electron laser, plus a range of secondary sources, including proton, positron and gamma-ray sources. This opens unprecedented perspectives for users, provided a proper strategy is implemented.  In this presentation an overview will be given of current design for the EuPRAXIA laser driver for Laser Plasma Acceleration, outlining advances and challenges with respect to state-of-the-art ultraintense laser technology. Specifications of the planned laser beamlines will be presented and discussed in view of the primary goal, namely the delivery of a high quality, multi GeV electron bunch. In addition, the possible use of available laser output beams for combined electron and laser experiments or FEL and laser experiments, like pump-and-probe experiments will also be briefly introduced.

      • 31