The current status of research on high-energy cosmic rays will be reviewed and open questions will be discussed. Emphasis will be given on galactic cosmic rays and their origin. We will discuss recent results from air shower experiments and gamma-ray astronomy. The actual status of our knowledge on the origin of extragalactic cosmic rays will be discussed, in particular, the results from the Pierre Auger Observatory. In addition, special emphasize will be given on the energy region from 0.1 to 1 EeV, in which a transition from a galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays is expected. This region is crucial to fully understand the processes in the high-energy non-thermal Universe. The cross links to particle physics at LHC well be pointed out.