Cosmic rays are important in disciplines often very distant among them, ranging from the search for cosmological antimatter to particle astronomy, from the study of the fundamental laws of physics at energies unattainable on Earth, to the biological effects they have on astronauts in space. The International Space Station is an unique and ideal place to perform experiments addressing frontier research in these fields. The purpose of this workshop is twofold: Get together scientists of different disciplines, such as astronomers, physicists, biologists, associated with the use of cosmic rays as a tool of scientific inquiry and the International Space Station (and other spacecraft) as a place of execution of the projects. Status of research in the various fields and possible interdisciplinary interactions will be addressed. Present - to the general public - the status of research in space, the importance of the International Space Station in the role of future exporation. The workshop is organized in a collaboration by the Dept. of Physics of the Universities and INFN structures of Rome Tor Vergata and Torino and RIKEN (Wakoshi). The workshop is organized as part of the "Italian Autumn in Japan" activities: http://sedi.esteri.it/Autunno2009/default.html Scientists and non-specialists of all nationalities are encouraged to participate.