Phases and topological defects in two dimensions

by Leticia Cugliandolo (Sorbonne Université)




Long-range translational order is forbidden in low dimensional systems with short-range interactions: solid phases can only have quasi long-range translational order while they keep long-range orientational order. The standard picture is that the melting transition occurs in two steps: an intermediate phase with quasi long-range orientational order is reached by the unbinding of dislocations while the transition to the liquid is triggered by the unbinding of disclinations. In this talk I will revisit all these issues and I will extend their analysis to systems of self-propelled particles, the constituents of active matter, a new kind of soft matter relevant to describe numerous biological problems. The dynamics across various phase transitions will also be briefly discussed. A new scenario emerges from extensive molecular simulations studies.